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IAS POLITICAL SCIENCE AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Optional Paper 2 Solutions- Section B Question 5,6

5. (a) Peaceful co-existence remains the cornerstone of India's foreign policy. Comment.

Answer: India's foreign policy has long been characterized by its commitment to peaceful co-existence with other nations. This is rooted in India's long-standing philosophy of nonviolence and respect for diversity, as well as its own experience of colonialism and the struggle for independence. India's leaders have consistently emphasized the importance of maintaining friendly relations with all countries, regardless of their political or ideological differences.

One of the key aspects of India's foreign policy is its commitment to multilateralism and international cooperation. India has been a leading voice in advocating for a more inclusive and equitable global order and has worked to strengthen institutions such as the United Nations and the World Trade Organization. India has also been an active participant in regional organizations such as the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the ASEAN Regional Forum, promoting cooperation and dialogue among neighboring countries.

India's policy of peaceful co-existence is also reflected in its approach to conflict resolution. India has a long history of engaging in diplomacy and mediation to resolve disputes, both domestically and internationally. This has been evident in its efforts to promote peace in conflict zones such as Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, and the Middle East.

India's emphasis on peaceful co-existence has also been reflected in its nuclear policy. India has consistently maintained a no-first-use policy with respect to nuclear weapons and has advocated for global disarmament and the elimination of nuclear weapons.

In summary, India's commitment to peaceful co-existence is a fundamental aspect of its foreign policy. This approach is rooted in India's philosophical and cultural traditions, and is reflected in its engagement with the international community, its approach to conflict resolution, and its nuclear policy.

5. (b) Discuss the ways and means to realize greater economic cooperation among the

Member States of South Asia.

Answer: South Asia is a region of immense economic potential, with a combined population of over 1.8 billion people, a vast pool of natural resources, and a large and growing consumer market. However, the region has yet to fully tap into this potential, as economic cooperation among the member states of South Asia has been limited.

Here are some ways and means to realize greater economic cooperation among the member states of South Asia:

Free Trade Agreements: South Asian countries can work towards signing free trade agreements (FTA) with each other, which would eliminate tariffs and other trade barriers, and lead to increased trade and investment among the countries. A good example of this is the South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA), which was established in 2006, but is yet to be fully implemented.

Connectivity: Enhancing connectivity between South Asian countries can boost economic cooperation. This includes improving transport infrastructure such as roads, railways, ports, and airports, and also improving digital connectivity, such as internet access and mobile networks.

Investment Promotion: South Asian countries should promote investment opportunities and provide incentives to attract foreign investors. This can be done by improving the ease of doing business, simplifying regulatory procedures, and offering tax breaks to investors.

Cross-border Energy Trade: Energy trade can be a significant source of economic cooperation among South Asian countries. Countries with surplus energy resources can export to countries with high energy demand. This can be done by building a cross-border energy transmission infrastructure.

Cultural Exchange: Cultural exchange programs can foster a greater sense of understanding and cooperation among the people of South Asian countries. This can lead to greater collaboration and cooperation in business and other economic activities.

Joint Research and Development: South Asian countries can collaborate on research and development projects to develop new technologies and products. This can lead to increased competitiveness and productivity in the region.

Overall, the realization of greater economic cooperation among the member states of South Asia will require a commitment from all countries in the region to work together towards common goals. By implementing the above measures and addressing the challenges and obstacles that may arise, the region can achieve its full economic potential.

5. (c) Discuss the steps required to realize 'hydro-co-operation' between India and Bangladesh.

Answer: Hydro-cooperation between India and Bangladesh refers to the sharing of water resources from common rivers for the mutual benefit of both countries. This type of cooperation is essential to ensure the sustainable use of water resources, mitigate the impact of natural disasters, and enhance economic development. Here are the steps required to realize hydro-cooperation between India and Bangladesh:

Identify the common rivers: The first step towards hydro-cooperation is to identify the common rivers between India and Bangladesh. The major rivers shared between the two countries are the Brahmaputra, the Ganges, and the Meghna.

Assess water resources: The next step is to assess the available water resources in these rivers. This would involve a detailed study of the water flow, seasonal variations, water quality, sedimentation, and other factors that influence water availability.

Agree on water sharing: Once the water resources are assessed, the next step is to agree on the sharing of water resources between the two countries. This would require negotiation and agreement on the quantity and timing of water flows, as well as the rules for managing any disputes that may arise.

Establish institutional mechanisms: To ensure effective implementation of the agreement on water sharing, it is essential to establish institutional mechanisms such as joint committees, technical working groups, and monitoring and evaluation systems. These mechanisms would help to facilitate cooperation and resolve any issues that may arise.

Implement projects: The final step is to implement projects that would facilitate the optimal utilization of shared water resources. This would involve the development of infrastructure such as dams, barrages, canals, and water treatment plants. It would also require investment in research and development to identify new ways of using water resources more efficiently.

In summary, realizing hydro-cooperation between India and Bangladesh requires a collaborative approach that involves the identification of common rivers, assessment of water resources, agreement on water sharing, the establishment of institutional mechanisms, and implementation of projects to facilitate optimal utilization of shared water resources.

5. (d)Explain the significance of the Basic Exchange and Co-operation Agreement (BECA) for

Indo-US strategic relations.

Answer: The Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement (BECA) is a significant agreement signed between India and the United States in October 2020. The agreement enables the exchange of sensitive and classified information between the two countries, allowing them to share geospatial information, including maps, nautical, and aeronautical charts, as well as other data and imagery that are crucial for defense and military operations.

The significance of BECA lies in its potential to enhance the strategic partnership between India and the United States. By enabling the exchange of crucial information, BECA strengthens cooperation and collaboration between the two countries on security and defense matters. This agreement also strengthens India's defense capabilities by providing it with access to advanced geospatial technology, which will enable it to better monitor its borders and maritime zones, identify potential security threats, and plan military operations more effectively.

Moreover, BECA demonstrates a deepening of the Indo-US strategic relationship, which has been steadily growing over the past two decades. This agreement is part of a larger effort by both countries to strengthen their strategic partnership, which has been driven by shared economic, political, and security interests. The agreement signals a new level of trust and cooperation between the two nations and lays the groundwork for future collaboration on critical security and defense issues.

Overall, BECA is a significant step forward for Indo-US strategic relations, providing a foundation for increased collaboration and cooperation on defense and security matters that are essential for both countries' long-term interests.

5. (e) Discuss the role of public diplomacy in the enhancement of India's global standing.

Answer: Public diplomacy refers to the efforts made by a country to promote its policies, values, culture, and interests to foreign audiences. It involves using various communication channels, such as media, cultural exchanges, educational programs, and social media platforms, to engage with people in other countries and promote a positive image of the country. In the case of India, public diplomacy can play a crucial role in enhancing its global standing by promoting its rich culture, values, and democratic system to the world.

India is a diverse country with a rich cultural heritage and a vibrant democracy. The country's culture, cuisine, music, dance, and art have been admired and appreciated by people around the world. Public diplomacy can leverage this cultural capital to promote India's soft power and enhance its global standing. For instance, organizing cultural festivals, film festivals, and art exhibitions in other countries can help showcase India's rich cultural heritage and promote cross-cultural understanding and goodwill.

Moreover, India's democratic system, which is the largest in the world, can be used to project its image as a responsible global citizen. Public diplomacy can help highlight India's commitment to democratic values, human rights, and the rule of law, which can enhance its reputation as a reliable partner in the international community. For instance, India can organize educational programs and exchange programs to promote democratic values and good governance practices among other countries.

In addition to cultural and democratic values, India's economic growth story can also be used to enhance its global standing. India is one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, and public diplomacy can be used to promote its economic potential and attract foreign investment. For instance, organizing business conferences, trade fairs, and investment summits can help showcase India's economic opportunities and create business partnerships with other countries.

In conclusion, public diplomacy can play a crucial role in enhancing India's global standing by promoting its cultural heritage, democratic values, and economic potential to the world. By leveraging its soft power, India can project a positive image and enhance its reputation as a responsible global citizen and a reliable partner in the international community.

6. (a) Discuss the relevance of the demand for a New International Economic Order (NIEO) in the present era of globalization.

Answer: The New International Economic Order (NIEO) was a movement in the 1970s aimed at restructuring the global economic system to address the imbalances that had arisen between developed and developing countries. The NIEO called for a range of policy changes, including greater access to technology, fairer trade practices, and increased financial assistance to developing countries.

Today, in the era of globalization, the demand for a new international economic order is still relevant. While globalization has brought about significant benefits, such as increased economic growth and improved living standards, it has also exacerbated inequalities between developed and developing countries.

Globalization has led to increased competition, which has often disadvantaged developing countries that lack the resources and infrastructure to compete on a level playing field. This has resulted in a concentration of wealth and power in the hands of developed countries and multinational corporations, while many developing countries struggle with poverty, debt, and underdevelopment.

In this context, the demand for a new international economic order remains relevant. Developing countries are calling for fairer trade practices, debt relief, and greater access to technology and financial resources. They are also advocating for greater participation in decision-making processes that affect their economic interests.

As the world becomes more interconnected, it is increasingly clear that the economic fortunes of different countries are linked. A more equitable global economic system is not only important for the development of developing countries but also for the stability and prosperity of the global economy as a whole.

In conclusion, the demand for a new international economic order remains relevant in the present era of globalization. The world needs a more equitable economic system that promotes sustainable development, fair trade practices, and greater participation by developing countries in decision-making processes that affect their economic interests.

6. (b) Critically examine the major factors responsible for a turnaround in the trajectory of India's foreign policy in the post-cold war period.

Answer: India's foreign policy underwent a significant shift in the post-Cold War era, characterized by a departure from the Non-Aligned Movement and a shift towards a more proactive, pragmatic, and strategic approach towards foreign relations. There were several factors responsible for this turnaround, some of which are discussed below.

Economic Liberalization: One of the most critical factors that led to a change in India's foreign policy was economic liberalization. The Indian government opened up its economy in the early 1990s, leading to an increase in foreign investment, trade, and economic growth. As a result, India began to play a more prominent role in global economic affairs, leading to a shift in its foreign policy priorities.

End of the Cold War: The end of the Cold War in 1991 led to a fundamental change in the global political landscape. India's foreign policy, which had previously been shaped by the East-West divide, had to adjust to the new world order. The fall of the Soviet Union led to a decline in India's dependence on the Soviet Union for strategic and economic support, forcing India to reassess its foreign policy priorities.

Nuclear Tests: India's nuclear tests in 1998 marked a significant turning point in the country's foreign policy. The tests demonstrated India's strategic capability and signaled the country's intent to assert itself as a regional power. However, the tests also led to international condemnation and economic sanctions, leading India to reevaluate its relationship with the global community.

Changing Regional Dynamics: The rise of China and the increasing importance of the Indian Ocean region in global affairs led to a shift in India's foreign policy priorities. India began to focus on strengthening its ties with neighboring countries, such as Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, to counter Chinese influence in the region. India also started to engage more actively in regional forums such as ASEAN, SAARC, and the Indian Ocean Rim Association.

Technology and Diplomacy: The widespread use of the internet and social media has revolutionized diplomacy in the 21st century. India has leveraged technology to enhance its diplomatic outreach, engaging with countries in Africa, Latin America, and the Asia-Pacific region through virtual summits, online conferences, and social media platforms. This has helped India to build stronger relationships with countries and promote its interests on the global stage.

In conclusion, several factors contributed to the turnaround in India's foreign policy in the post-Cold War period. Economic liberalization, the end of the Cold War, nuclear tests, changing regional dynamics, and technology have all played a critical role in shaping India's foreign policy priorities and strategies.

6. (c) Discuss the reasons behind India's refusal to sign the nuclear non-proliferation treaty (NPT).

Answer: India's refusal to sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is based on several reasons, including historical, strategic, and political considerations.

Historical context: India has a long history of nuclear research, dating back to the 1940s. India's nuclear program was initiated primarily for peaceful purposes, but the country's defense establishment recognized the need for a nuclear deterrence capability, particularly after the 1962 Sino-Indian War and the 1965 India-Pakistan War. India conducted its first nuclear test in 1974, which was criticized by the international community, including the US.

Strategic considerations: India has been surrounded by two nuclear-armed neighbors, China and Pakistan. India sees itself as a regional power and believes that nuclear weapons are necessary to maintain strategic stability and deterrence against potential threats from these countries. India also believes that the NPT unfairly discriminates against non-nuclear-weapon states, as it allows the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (P5) to maintain their nuclear arsenals while preventing other countries from acquiring them.

Political considerations: India has traditionally been skeptical of international treaties that it perceives as infringing on its sovereignty or limiting its strategic autonomy. The NPT is viewed by some in India as a discriminatory treaty that reinforces the existing global power structure, where the P5 has an unfair advantage. India's refusal to sign the NPT is seen as a matter of national pride and as a symbol of its independence and autonomy in the international arena.

It is important to note that India has always maintained that its nuclear program is solely for defensive purposes and that it remains committed to global disarmament. India has proposed a global no-first-use policy for nuclear weapons and has advocated for a world free of nuclear weapons. However, India's refusal to sign the NPT has created tension with the international community, particularly the P5, and has resulted in sanctions and restrictions on its nuclear program.

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