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WBCS Exe Etc Exam Main Optional Subject Philosophy Syllabus






Paper – I :


Problems of Philosophy (European and Indian)


1. Plato and Aristotle : Ideas, Substance; Form and Matter; Causation; Actuality and Potentiality. 2. Rationalism (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibnitz) : Cartesian Method and Certain Knowledge;Substance; God; Determinism and Freedom. 3. Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley, Hume) : Theory of Knowledge; Substance and Qualities; Eliminating thoughts ,Self and God; Scepticism. 4. Kant : Possibility of Synthetic a priori judgments; Space and Time; Categories. 5. Moore, Russell and Early Wittgenstein : Defence of Common sense; Refutation of Idealism;Logical Atomism; Picture Theory of Meaning. 6. Logical Positivism : Verification Theory of Meaning; Rejection of Metaphysics. 7. Cârvâka : Theory of Knowledge; Metaphysics and Ethics. 8. Jainism : Anekântavâda,; Saptabhanginaya. 9. Buddhism : Four Noble Truths; Pratîtyasamutpâda, Kşaņikavâda, Nairâtmyavâda. 10. Nyâya – Vaiśesika :Theory of mind ,Theory of Categories; Theory of Pramâna; Self; Theory of Causation;Atomistic Theory of Creation. 11. Sâmkhya : Prakŗti; Puruşa; Causation; Theory of Evolution. 12. Yoga : Citta; Cittavŗtti. 13. Mîmâmsâ : Epistemology; Theory of Validity. 14. Vedânta : Views of Śamkara and Râmânuja on Brahman; Îśvara; Âtman; Jîva; Jagat; Mâyâ;Avidyâ; Adhyâsa. 15. Swâmi Vivekânanda : Practical Vedânta. 16. Sri Aurobindo : Evolution; Involution; Integral Yoga. 17. Rabindranath Tagore: Nature of Man; Surplus in Man.



Paper–II :


Socio – Political Philosophy and Psychology


1. Social and Political Ideals : Equality, Justice, Liberty: Views of Mill, Locke, Rawls. 2. Individual and State : Rights, Duties and Accountability. 3. Political Ideologies : Anarchism, Marxism, Socialism and Democracy. 4. Humanism; Secularism; Multiculturalism. 5. Social Change : Gandhi, Ambedkar. 6. Mind – Body Problem : Dualism, Philosophical Behaviourism, Person Theory of Strawson. 7. Levels of Mind; Proofs for the existence of the unconscious; Freud’s theory of dream, citta,cittavŗtti (Yoga). Ethics and Philosophy of Religion 8. Standards of Morality : Utilitarianism (Bentham and Mill), Deontological Theories. 9. Virtue Ethics : Aristotle. 10. Human Rights and Discrimination. 11. Feminism : Liberal and Radical. 12. Environmental Ethics : Bio-centric ethics and Eco-centric ethics. 13. Theories of Punishment; Capital Punishment. 14. Terrorism and Just war. 15. Indian Ethics : Puruşârtha, Concept of Liberation, Anuvrata and Mahâvrata (Jainism),Brahmavihâra (Buddhism). 16. Proofs for the existence of God : Logical atomism,Descartes, St. Anselm, Naiyâyikas. 17. Religion without God, Religion and Morality. 18. Religious Pluralism, Determinism. 19. Nature of Religious Language : Cognitive and Non-cognitive, Analogical and Symbolic.




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