Public Administration Civil Services Paper 2 Section- B, Questions 7,8_ Solutions
7. (a) In India, for the upliftment of the majority of people, governmental intervention remains a central fact of life. Nevertheless, the effective implementation of policies depends on the ethical values of Public Servants. Discuss.
Answer: The role of the government in India is significant, particularly when it comes to the upliftment of the majority of people. Governmental policies and programs aim to provide access to basic services and opportunities, such as healthcare, education, and employment, to improve the overall quality of life. However, the successful implementation of these policies depends on the ethical values of public servants.
Public servants are responsible for implementing and enforcing government policies and programs. Their ethical values and integrity are critical to ensure that public resources are utilized effectively and that the benefits of policies and programs reach those who need them the most. Public servants who lack ethical values and integrity may engage in corrupt practices, such as embezzlement, bribery, and nepotism, which can undermine the effectiveness of government policies and programs.
Ethical values, such as honesty, impartiality, transparency, and accountability, are essential for public servants to perform their duties effectively. These values ensure that public servants prioritize the public interest over personal gain, treat everyone fairly and impartially, communicate openly and honestly, and take responsibility for their actions.
Public servants must also be committed to the principles of democracy and human rights. They should respect and uphold the rights and freedoms of all citizens, including marginalized and vulnerable groups. They should also ensure that their actions and decisions are in line with the principles of transparency, accountability, and the rule of law.
In conclusion, the ethical values of public servants are critical to the successful implementation of government policies and programs aimed at uplifting the majority of people in India. Public servants who uphold ethical values and integrity can ensure that public resources are utilized effectively and that the benefits of policies and programs reach those who need them the most. Therefore, it is essential for the government to prioritize ethical values and integrity in the recruitment, training, and management of public servants.
7. (b) Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) is today a primary cause of widespread and paralyzing unwillingness on the part of government institutions to decide and act. Discuss.
Answer: The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) is an important constitutional office that is responsible for auditing the accounts of the government and ensuring that public funds are used in an effective, efficient, and transparent manner. However, there is a perception among some that the CAG's audits and reports are causing a paralyzing unwillingness on the part of government institutions to decide and act.
One reason for this perception is that the CAG's reports often highlight instances of financial irregularities, mismanagement, and corruption, which can lead to embarrassment and reputational damage for the government and its officials. In some cases, the CAG's reports have been used by opposition parties and the media to criticize the government and demand action. This can create a defensive mindset among government officials who may be reluctant to take decisions or implement policies for fear of being criticized or investigated by the CAG.
Another reason for this perception is that the CAG's audits and reports can take a long time to be completed, which can cause delays in decision-making and implementation. This is especially true in cases where the CAG has identified irregularities or discrepancies that require further investigation or clarification. In such cases, government institutions may be hesitant to take action until the CAG's audit is complete, which can lead to delays and inaction.
However, it is important to note that the CAG's role is not to obstruct or delay government decision-making, but rather to provide an independent and objective assessment of the government's financial management and accountability. The CAG's audits and reports serve as an important tool for ensuring transparency and accountability in government institutions and can help identify areas where improvements are needed.
In conclusion, while there may be perceptions that the CAG's audits and reports are causing a paralyzing unwillingness on the part of government institutions to decide and act, it is important to recognize that the CAG's role is critical in ensuring transparency and accountability in government institutions. The government and its officials should view the CAG's reports as an opportunity to identify areas for improvement and take corrective action, rather than as a hindrance to decision-making and implementation.
7(c) Do you think that the new localism relegates the spirit of the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992?
Answer: The 74th Constitutional Amendment Act, of 1992, was introduced to promote decentralization and empower local governments in India. It aimed to provide more autonomy and resources to urban local bodies, such as municipal corporations, councils, and committees, to ensure the efficient delivery of basic services and improve the quality of life of citizens.
The concept of "new localism" refers to a shift in governance from centralized, hierarchical structures to decentralized, collaborative ones. It emphasizes the importance of engaging local communities, civil society, and private sector stakeholders in decision-making and problem-solving processes.
While the new localism can complement the spirit of the 74th Amendment Act by enabling greater participation and accountability at the local level, it could also pose challenges to its implementation. For example, the new localism may create tensions between local and state governments over the allocation of resources and responsibilities. It may also require a more nuanced understanding of the roles and functions of local governments, as well as the capacity-building of local leaders and institutions.
Therefore, it is important to strike a balance between the principles of the 74th Amendment Act and the emerging trends of new localism to ensure effective and sustainable urban governance in India.
8. (a) The main objective of the Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996 is to enable tribal society to assume control over their livelihoods and traditional rights. Critically examine the implementation of the Act.
Answer: The Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996 (PESA) was enacted with the aim of empowering tribal communities in India by devolving more powers to the local self-government bodies, i.e., the gram sabhas, in the Scheduled Areas. The primary objective of PESA is to enable tribal communities to assume control over their livelihoods and traditional rights. However, the implementation of the Act has been mixed, and there are several challenges in its implementation.
One of the significant challenges in implementing PESA is the lack of awareness among tribal communities about their rights and the provisions of the Act. The gram sabhas are the key bodies under PESA, and they are responsible for taking decisions on local matters such as land acquisition, forest rights, and development projects. However, in many cases, the gram sabhas have not been able to exercise their powers effectively due to a lack of awareness and capacity.
Another challenge in implementing PESA is the resistance from the state governments, which are often reluctant to devolve powers to the gram sabhas. In some cases, state governments have even diluted the provisions of the Act by transferring the powers of the gram sabhas to the panchayats at higher levels.
Furthermore, there have been issues related to the functioning of the gram sabhas. In many cases, the gram sabhas have not been able to hold regular meetings, and there have been allegations of malpractice and corruption in the decision-making process.
In addition, the implementation of PESA has been affected by the lack of financial resources and infrastructure in the Scheduled Areas. The gram sabhas need financial resources and infrastructure to function effectively, but in many cases, these have not been provided by the government.
Overall, the implementation of PESA has been mixed. While there have been some successes in empowering tribal communities, there have also been several challenges and limitations in its implementation. To ensure the effective implementation of PESA, it is essential to raise awareness among tribal communities, strengthen the capacity of the gram sabhas, and provide them with the necessary financial resources and infrastructure. Additionally, the state governments must be encouraged to devolve powers to the gram sabhas and ensure that the provisions of the Act are implemented in letter and spirit.
8. (b) The effectiveness of law and order administration depends on cooperative attitudes of people towards police, then bringing reforms in the structure and procedures of law and order machinery. Do you agree? Give reasons.
Answer: It is true that cooperation between the public and the police is essential for effective law and order administration. The police force cannot function without the cooperation of the people they serve. If the public does not trust or respect the police, it can hinder their ability to enforce the law and protect citizens.
However, it is not entirely accurate to say that the effectiveness of law and order administration solely depends on the cooperative attitudes of people toward the police. Reforms in the structure and procedures of the law and order machinery are also necessary to ensure the police force is accountable, transparent, and efficient.
Reforms such as improving police training, implementing community policing initiatives, and increasing police accountability through oversight mechanisms can help build trust between the police and the public. Additionally, addressing systemic issues such as racial profiling, excessive use of force, and police misconduct are crucial steps to ensure the police force serves and protects all members of society equally.
In conclusion, while cooperation between the public and the police is essential for effective law and order administration, reforms in the structure and procedures of law and order machinery are also necessary to ensure the police force is accountable, transparent, and efficient.
8(c) Examine the role of Lokpal in ensuring transparency and accountability in Indian administration.
Answer: The Lokpal is an anti-corruption ombudsman organization in India. It was established in 2014 by the Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act, 2013. The role of Lokpal is to investigate and prosecute cases of corruption against public servants, including the Prime Minister and Members of Parliament, among others.
One of the primary objectives of the Lokpal is to ensure transparency and accountability in the Indian administration. The Lokpal receives complaints from citizens against public servants, including ministers and bureaucrats, who are involved in corruption, malpractices, or abuse of power. The Lokpal then investigates the complaints and takes necessary actions, including initiating prosecutions and recommending corrective measures to the government.
The Lokpal plays an essential role in ensuring transparency and accountability in the Indian administration by creating a deterrent effect on public servants who may engage in corrupt practices. It acts as an independent body that can investigate and prosecute cases of corruption without any interference from the government or political parties.
The Lokpal also ensures transparency by making its investigations and actions public. It publishes its reports and findings on its website, which can be accessed by the public. This helps to increase public awareness about corruption and promotes a culture of transparency and accountability.
In conclusion, the Lokpal plays a crucial role in ensuring transparency and accountability in the Indian administration. By investigating and prosecuting cases of corruption and making its findings public, the Lokpal creates a deterrent effect on public servants and promotes a culture of transparency and accountability.