top of page

Indian Administrative Service IAS Agriculture Optional Paper 2 Solutions- Section B Question 7,8






7. (a) Enlist the different commercial flowers cultivated on a large scale for the cut flower trade. Briefly discuss the factors affecting the keeping quality of cut flowers and the remedies.


Answer: There are numerous commercial flowers that are cultivated on a large scale for the cut flower trade. Some of the most popular ones are:


Roses



Carnations



Chrysanthemums



Gerberas



Lilies



Orchids

Tulips

Alstroemerias

Hydrangeas

Sunflowers


Factors affecting the keeping quality of cut flowers:


Temperature: Temperature is a crucial factor that affects the keeping quality of cut flowers. Most cut flowers have a temperature range at which they can survive, and it is essential to maintain that temperature range to keep them fresh.


Water: Water is necessary for the survival of cut flowers, and maintaining an adequate water supply is important for the flowers to stay fresh.


Humidity: Humidity levels are also essential to maintaining the freshness of cut flowers. Low humidity can cause wilting, while high humidity can cause rotting.


Light: Cut flowers should be kept away from direct sunlight, as it can cause the flowers to wilt and fade faster.


Microorganisms: Bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms can cause decay and rotting in cut flowers. It is crucial to keep the flowers clean and free from contaminants.


Remedies to improve the keeping quality of cut flowers:


Use clean water: Cut flowers should be placed in clean water to prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi.


Change the water regularly: Changing the water every 2-3 days can help keep the water fresh and free from bacteria and fungi.


Add floral preservatives: Floral preservatives contain nutrients and chemicals that can help extend the life of cut flowers. These preservatives can be purchased from florists or garden centers.


Remove leaves: Removing the leaves from the stems of cut flowers can help reduce the growth of bacteria and fungi.


Store flowers properly: Cut flowers should be stored in a cool, dark place away from direct sunlight and heat sources.


By following these remedies, the keeping quality of cut flowers can be improved, and they can remain fresh for a longer time.



(b) Discuss photorespiration. What is the relationship between photorespiration and photosynthesis?


Answer: Photorespiration is a process that occurs in plants, in which oxygen is consumed and carbon dioxide is produced, leading to the loss of energy and carbon that could otherwise be used for photosynthesis. The process occurs in the light and involves a series of reactions that occur in the chloroplast, peroxisome, and mitochondria.


During photosynthesis, plants take in carbon dioxide and produce oxygen and glucose, using the energy from light to drive the reactions. However, in certain conditions, such as when the temperature is high or when carbon dioxide levels are low, the enzyme RuBisCO, which is responsible for fixing carbon dioxide in the Calvin cycle, can mistakenly bind with oxygen instead of carbon dioxide. This results in the formation of a toxic compound that must be detoxified by a complex set of reactions, collectively called photorespiration.


The relationship between photorespiration and photosynthesis is complex, as they are intertwined processes that compete for the same resources. While photosynthesis produces energy and carbon compounds that can be used for growth and reproduction, photorespiration consumes some of these compounds and dissipates some of the energy that would otherwise be used for photosynthesis.


Overall, photorespiration reduces the efficiency of photosynthesis and limits plant growth, especially in conditions where carbon dioxide is scarce. Understanding the mechanisms of photorespiration is an active area of research, as it could provide insights into how to improve the efficiency of photosynthesis and increase crop yields.


(c) Enlist and explain the issues and challenges in the growth of the food processing industry in India.


Answer: The food processing industry in India is one of the largest industries in the country, contributing significantly to the country's GDP and providing employment to millions of people. However, the industry faces several issues and challenges that hinder its growth and development. Some of the major issues and challenges faced by the food processing industry in India are:


Infrastructure: The lack of adequate infrastructure, including cold storage facilities, transportation, and packaging, is a significant challenge for the industry. Due to inadequate infrastructure, food products often get spoilt, leading to wastage and losses.


Quality control: Maintaining quality standards is crucial for the success of the food processing industry. However, due to inadequate quality control measures and the prevalence of adulteration and contamination, consumers often lose trust in food products, affecting the industry's growth.


Inefficient supply chain: Inefficient supply chains, which involve multiple intermediaries, lead to a delay in the delivery of raw materials and finished products, adding to the industry's cost and reducing its efficiency.


Lack of skilled labor: The food processing industry requires a skilled workforce to handle modern equipment and technologies. However, the industry often faces a shortage of skilled labor, leading to lower productivity and efficiency.


High taxes and regulations: The food processing industry faces high taxes and regulations, leading to increased costs and reduced profitability. Complex regulatory processes and frequent policy changes also add to the industry's challenges.


Limited access to credit: Access to credit is essential for the growth of the food processing industry. However, small and medium-sized enterprises in the industry often struggle to secure adequate credit, limiting their ability to expand and grow.


Limited market access: The food processing industry in India largely caters to the domestic market, limiting its growth potential. Access to global markets is limited, affecting the industry's ability to expand and compete with other countries.


In conclusion, the growth of the food processing industry in India faces several challenges, including inadequate infrastructure, poor quality control, an inefficient supply chain, a shortage of skilled labor, high taxes, and regulations, limited access to credit, and limited market access. Addressing these challenges is crucial for the industry's growth and development, which can significantly contribute to the country's economy.


8. (a) Enlist the seed spices grown in India. Briefly discuss the cultivation and postharvest management practices for coriander and cumin.

Answer: India is a land of spices and has a long history of the spice cultivation. Seed spices are an important group of spices grown in India. Some of the commonly grown seed spices in India are coriander, cumin, fennel, fenugreek, mustard, sesame, poppy, and ajwain.


Coriander and cumin are two of the most important seed spices grown in India. Let's discuss the cultivation and postharvest management practices for these two spices in brief:


Coriander:


Coriander is an annual herb that belongs to the Apiaceae family. It is grown extensively in India, particularly in the states of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, and Karnataka. Coriander requires a cool and dry climate and grows well in well-drained soils. The seeds are sown in rows, and the seedlings are thinned to a distance of 10-15 cm. The crop requires regular irrigation and is usually ready for harvest in 100-120 days.


Postharvest management: After harvest, the coriander seeds are sun-dried to a moisture content of 8-10%. The dried seeds are then cleaned and packed in gunny bags for storage. Proper storage conditions, including low temperature and low humidity, are necessary to maintain the quality of coriander seeds.


Cumin:


Cumin is an annual herb that belongs to the Apiaceae family. It is grown extensively in India, particularly in the states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh. Cumin requires a warm and arid climate and grows well in well-drained soils. The seeds are sown in rows, and the seedlings are thinned to a distance of 10-15 cm. The crop requires regular irrigation and is usually ready for harvest in 120-150 days.

Postharvest management: After harvest, the cumin seeds are sun-dried to a moisture content of 8-10%. The dried seeds are then cleaned and packed in gunny bags for storage. Cumin seeds are sensitive to high temperatures and humidity, and proper storage conditions, including low temperature and low humidity, are necessary to maintain the quality of cumin seeds.


In summary, the cultivation and postharvest management practices for coriander and cumin involve proper soil and climate requirements, regular irrigation, and sun-drying and storage of the seeds at low temperatures and humidity to maintain their quality.


(b) Describe the various methods of pest control with appropriate examples.

Answer: There are several methods of pest control, ranging from chemical to non-chemical methods. Here are some examples:


Chemical pest control: Chemical pesticides are the most common method of pest control. They work by killing or repelling pests with toxic chemicals. Examples of chemical pest control methods include insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides.


Biological pest control: Biological pest control involves using natural predators or parasites to control pest populations. This method is often used in agricultural settings. Examples of biological pest control include using ladybugs to control aphids and using parasitic wasps to control caterpillars.


Cultural pest control: Cultural pest control involves changing the environment to make it less hospitable to pests. For example, crop rotation can help prevent the buildup of pests in the soil.


Mechanical pest control: Mechanical pest control involves physically removing pests from an area. This method is often used in homes and gardens. Examples of mechanical pest control include using sticky traps to catch flies and using nets to keep birds away from crops.


Integrated pest management: Integrated pest management (IPM) is a holistic approach that combines multiple methods of pest control. IPM involves monitoring pest populations, identifying the most effective methods of control, and using a combination of methods to achieve long-term pest control. This approach is often used in agriculture.


It's important to note that some methods of pest control, such as chemical pesticides, can have negative environmental impacts. As such, it's important to choose the most appropriate method of pest control for the situation, taking into account factors such as the type of pest, the environment, and the potential impact of the method on non-target species.



(c) What is food security? Why is it essential? Describe the current food security system in India.



Answer: Food security refers to the condition where all people, at all times, have access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and preferences for an active and healthy life. Food security is essential because it is a fundamental human right and is crucial for achieving sustainable development, reducing poverty, and improving the health and well-being of people.


In India, the government has implemented various schemes and policies to address food security. The main components of India's food security system are:


Public Distribution System (PDS): The PDS is a government-run system that provides subsidized food grains to eligible households. The food grains are distributed through a network of fair price shops (FPS) across the country. The PDS is the primary mechanism for ensuring food security for the poor and vulnerable sections of the population.


Mid-day Meal Scheme (MDMS): The MDMS is a school feeding program that provides free cooked meals to children in primary and upper primary schools. The scheme aims to improve the nutritional status of children, increase school enrollment and attendance, and promote social equity.


National Food Security Act (NFSA): The NFSA is a landmark legislation passed in 2013 that aims to provide food and nutritional security to the most vulnerable sections of the population. The act provides for the identification of eligible households and the distribution of subsidized food grains through the PDS.


Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS): The ICDS is a flagship program of the government of India that aims to provide a package of services, including supplementary nutrition, health, and education, to children under six years of age and their mothers.


Despite the various schemes and policies, India continues to face significant challenges in ensuring food security for all. Issues such as inadequate food production, high levels of food waste, poor distribution systems, and rising food prices remain major obstacles to achieving food security. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic has further exacerbated food insecurity, particularly among vulnerable sections of the population. The government of India needs to continue to invest in improving the food security system and addressing these challenges to ensure that all citizens have access to safe and nutritious food.


Are you interested, then enroll now

  • Yes, I am interested

  • Thinking about it



4 views

Comments


Featured Posts
Recent Posts
Archive
Search By Tags
Follow Us
  • Facebook Basic Square
  • Twitter Basic Square
  • Google+ Basic Square
bottom of page