IAS POLITICAL SCIENCE AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Optional Paper 2 Solutions- Section B Question 7,8
7. (a)What are the main drivers of the India-Japan Strategic and Global Partnership?
Answer: The India-Japan Strategic and Global Partnership is driven by several factors, including shared democratic values, economic interdependence, and security cooperation.
Shared Democratic Values: India and Japan share a commitment to democratic values, including the rule of law, freedom of speech, and individual rights. Both countries have a long-standing tradition of democratic governance, and this shared commitment serves as the foundation of their strategic partnership.
Economic Interdependence: India and Japan are two of the world's largest economies, and their economies are complementary in many ways. Japan is a major investor in India, and Indian companies have also invested heavily in Japan. In recent years, both countries have been working to deepen their economic ties, with a focus on infrastructure development, high-tech industries, and innovation.
Security Cooperation: India and Japan are both facing security challenges in their respective regions, and they have been working together to address these challenges. They have been strengthening their defense ties, conducting joint military exercises, and sharing intelligence. They have also been cooperating on maritime security, cybersecurity, and counter-terrorism.
Regional Stability: Both India and Japan have a strong interest in maintaining stability in the Indo-Pacific region, which is becoming increasingly important in the global geopolitical landscape. They have been working together to promote regional security, economic development, and connectivity.
Overall, the India-Japan Strategic and Global Partnership is driven by a shared commitment to democratic values, economic interdependence, security cooperation, and regional stability. These factors are likely to continue to shape the relationship between the two countries in the years ahead.
7. (b) What are the implications of the 'Look-East' Policy on the northeastern region of India?
Answer: The "Look East" policy, which was later renamed the "Act East" policy, is an initiative by the Indian government to strengthen its economic and strategic ties with the countries of Southeast Asia and East Asia. The policy aims to promote trade, investment, and cultural exchanges between India and the region.
The implications of the "Look East" policy on the northeastern region of India can be significant. Some of the key implications are:
Increased connectivity: The policy aims to improve connectivity between Northeast India and Southeast Asia by building infrastructure, such as roads, railways, and air links. This can help boost trade and tourism in the region.
Economic development: The policy can provide new opportunities for economic development in Northeast India. The region has significant potential for trade and investment, particularly in agriculture, tourism, and energy. The policy can help to unlock this potential by promoting investment and trade links with Southeast Asia.
Cultural exchanges: The policy can help to promote cultural exchanges between Northeast India and Southeast Asia. The region shares historical and cultural links with Southeast Asia, and the policy can help to promote greater understanding and cooperation between the two regions.
Strategic importance: The policy can enhance the strategic importance of Northeast India. The region shares borders with several Southeast Asian countries, and the policy can help to strengthen India's strategic partnerships in the region.
Overall, the "Look East" policy has the potential to bring significant benefits to the northeastern region of India. However, its success will depend on the implementation of key initiatives, such as improving infrastructure and promoting investment and trade links with Southeast Asia.
7. (c) Explain the factors which justify India's claim for a permanent seat at the UN security council.
Answer: India has been a member of the United Nations since its inception in 1945. India has been a consistent supporter of the UN's principles of international peace and security and has contributed to UN peacekeeping missions around the world. India's claim for a permanent seat at the UN Security Council is based on several factors, which are explained below:
Size and population: India is the world's second-most populous country, with a population of over 1.3 billion people. It is also the seventh-largest country in the world by land area. India's sheer size and population make it a major player in international affairs.
Economic power: India is the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and the third-largest by purchasing power parity. India is also a member of the G20, a group of the world's largest economies. Its economic strength gives it considerable influence in global economic decision-making.
Nuclear power: India is one of the nine nuclear-armed states in the world. It has developed nuclear weapons and is also a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Its nuclear capability gives it strategic significance and influence on global security matters.
Democratic values: India is the world's largest democracy, with a vibrant civil society and a free and independent press. It has a long history of promoting democratic values and human rights at the international level. India's commitment to these values makes it an ideal candidate for a permanent seat on the UN Security Council.
Global peacekeeping: India is the largest contributor of troops to UN peacekeeping missions, with over 180,000 troops deployed since 1948. India has also been actively involved in conflict resolution and peacekeeping efforts in various parts of the world. Its contribution to global peacekeeping underscores its commitment to the UN's principles of international peace and security.
In conclusion, India's claim for a permanent seat at the UN Security Council is justified by its size and population, economic power, nuclear capability, commitment to democratic values, and contribution to global peacekeeping efforts.
8. (a) How do India-Israel bilateral ties reflect the autonomy of India's foreign policy choices?
Answer: India-Israel bilateral ties are an important aspect of India's foreign policy, and they have evolved significantly over the years. The relationship between India and Israel has traditionally been a complex one, with India historically supporting the Palestinian cause and maintaining close ties with Arab nations that have been hostile to Israel. However, in recent years, India has sought to develop closer ties with Israel, particularly in the areas of defense, technology, and trade.
The fact that India has been able to maintain close ties with Israel despite its historically close ties with Arab nations is a reflection of India's autonomy in making its own foreign policy choices. India's foreign policy has always been guided by the principles of non-alignment and strategic autonomy, which have allowed it to pursue its interests and forge relationships with countries that may not necessarily be aligned with its traditional partners.
Moreover, India's relationship with Israel is not based solely on political considerations, but also on economic and technological ties. India has benefited greatly from Israeli expertise in areas such as agriculture, water management, and defense technology. This relationship has helped India to develop its own capabilities and become more self-reliant in key areas.
At the same time, India has also continued to support the Palestinian cause and maintained its relationships with Arab nations. This demonstrates India's ability to balance its interests and relationships in the region and pursue its foreign policy goals based on its own interests and values.
In conclusion, India's relationship with Israel is a reflection of its autonomy in making its own foreign policy choices. India's ability to balance its relationships with Israel and Arab nations, and its pursuit of economic and technological ties with Israel, demonstrate its strategic autonomy and ability to pursue its interests based on its own values and goals.
8. (b) Discuss the consequences of illegal cross-border migration in India's northeastern region.
Answer: Illegal cross-border migration in India's northeastern region has several consequences, both positive and negative. Some of these consequences are discussed below:
The strain on resources: Illegal migration puts a strain on resources such as water, food, and housing, as well as infrastructure such as roads, hospitals, and schools. This can lead to resentment and conflict between the local population and migrants.
Increased competition for jobs: Illegal migrants often work in the informal sector, which leads to competition for jobs with the local population. This can create economic insecurity for both locals and migrants.
Security concerns: Illegal migration can be a security concern, as it can lead to the spread of extremist ideologies, trafficking of people and drugs, and other criminal activities. It also affects the country's internal security and can lead to the polarization of society.
Demographic changes: Illegal migration can change the demographic composition of the region, which can lead to cultural and social tensions. It can also impact political representation and power balance.
Environmental impact: Illegal migration can have an environmental impact, as migrants may engage in deforestation and other activities that harm the natural environment.
Overall, illegal cross-border migration in India's northeastern region has several negative consequences. It is important for the government to address this issue through appropriate policies and measures to mitigate these consequences and ensure the region's long-term stability and development.
8. (c) Discuss India's vision of a New World order in the 21st century.
Answer: India's vision of a New World Order in the 21st century is primarily based on its core principles of democracy, multilateralism, and inclusive growth. India sees itself as a responsible global power that can play a crucial role in shaping a more equitable and just international system.
Some of the key elements of India's vision of a New World Order are:
Multilateralism: India believes that global problems require global solutions and that multilateralism is the best way to address these challenges. India advocates for a reformed United Nations system that is more representative, effective, and accountable. India also supports regional and sub-regional groupings such as the BRICS, G-20, and the Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA) to promote regional cooperation and integration.
Economic growth and development: India is committed to promoting sustainable and inclusive economic growth and development. India's vision of a New World Order envisages a global economic system that is fair, equitable, and just. India advocates for an international economic system that promotes the interests of developing countries and provides them with greater access to markets and technology.
Peace and security: India's vision of a New World Order prioritizes peace and security. India is committed to strengthening the global security architecture and promoting regional and international cooperation in areas such as counter-terrorism, non-proliferation, and disarmament.
Climate change and sustainability: India recognizes the urgent need to address climate change and promote sustainable development. India advocates for a global response to climate change that is based on the principles of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities.
Human rights and social justice: India believes that the promotion and protection of human rights and social justice are critical elements of a New World Order. India advocates for a global human rights regime that is based on the principles of universality, non-discrimination, and non-selectivity.
In conclusion, India's vision of a New World Order in the 21st century is based on the principles of democracy, multilateralism, and inclusive growth. India sees itself as a responsible global power that can play a crucial role in shaping a more equitable and just international system.