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IAS POLITICAL SCIENCE AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Optional Paper 2 Solutions- Section A Question 3,4





3. (a) Critically examine the rise of the People's Republic of China (PRC) as a great power and its implications on the Asian Political order.


Answer: The rise of the People's Republic of China (PRC) as a great power has been one of the most significant global developments of the 21st century. The country's rapid economic growth and increasing military capabilities have made it a major player on the world stage, with significant implications for the Asian political order.


One of the key factors driving China's rise has been its economic development. Since adopting market-oriented economic reforms in the late 1970s, China has experienced sustained and impressive economic growth, with its gross domestic product (GDP) growing at an average annual rate of around 10% over the past four decades. This growth has allowed China to become the world's second-largest economy, and its rising prosperity has given it greater leverage in global affairs.


Another factor contributing to China's rise has been its military modernization. In recent years, China has invested heavily in developing its military capabilities, particularly its navy and air force and has undertaken an ambitious program of modernizing its military technology. This has allowed China to project its power further afield, particularly in the South China Sea, where it has been involved in territorial disputes with neighboring countries.


The implications of China's rise in the Asian political order are complex and multifaceted. On the one hand, China's growing economic clout has allowed it to expand its influence across the region, particularly through its Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), which aims to build infrastructure and trade links across Asia and beyond. This has helped to increase China's soft power in the region and has made it an increasingly important partner for many countries in the region.


On the other hand, China's rise has also led to growing tensions with other major powers in the region, particularly the United States and Japan. The US has been increasingly concerned about China's growing military capabilities and its assertiveness in the South China Sea and has sought to counterbalance China's rise through measures such as the "pivot to Asia" and the Quad, a grouping of four countries (the US, Japan, India, and Australia) that seeks to promote security and stability in the region.


Similarly, Japan has been wary of China's rise, particularly in light of historical tensions between the two countries and their ongoing dispute over the Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands in the East China Sea. As a result, Japan has sought to strengthen its security ties with the US and has been investing in its own military capabilities in order to deter China's assertiveness in the region.


In conclusion, the rise of the People's Republic of China as a great power has significant implications for the Asian political order. While China's growing economic clout has allowed it to expand its influence across the region, its military modernization and assertiveness in the South China Sea have led to growing tensions with other major powers in the region. As a result, the Asian political order is likely to be characterized by a complex web of alliances and counterbalances as countries seek to navigate China's rise and maintain stability and security in the region.


3. (b) Discuss the conceptual dimensions of collective security.


Answer: Collective security is a concept that aims to maintain international peace and security through the collective efforts of states. It is based on the assumption that an attack on one state is an attack on all states, and therefore all states have a shared responsibility to respond to any threat to international peace and security.





There are several conceptual dimensions of collective security that are crucial to understanding how it operates:


Shared Responsibility: Collective security is based on the idea that all states share responsibility for maintaining international peace and security. This means that if one state is threatened, all other states have a responsibility to help defend it.


Non-Aggression: The principle of non-aggression is central to collective security. States agree not to use force against each other and to settle their disputes peacefully through negotiation and mediation.


Collective Response: If a state is threatened or attacked, all other states have a responsibility to respond collectively to the threat. This can include diplomatic, economic, and military measures.


Multilateralism: Collective security is a multilateral approach to maintaining international peace and security. This means that states work together through international organizations such as the United Nations to address threats to peace and security.


Preemptive Action: Collective security also involves taking preemptive action to prevent conflicts from escalating into full-scale war. This can include measures such as diplomatic negotiations, economic sanctions, and the use of peacekeeping forces.


Human Security: Collective security is not only concerned with the security of states but also with the security of individuals. This means that it takes into account the impact of conflicts on civilians, and seeks to protect their human rights and dignity.


Overall, the conceptual dimensions of collective security are focused on preventing conflicts and maintaining peace through shared responsibility, non-aggression, collective response, multilateralism, preemptive action, and a concern for human security.


3(c) Discuss the efficacy of global conventions to combat international terrorism.


Answer: Global conventions can play a critical role in combating international terrorism. These conventions serve as international agreements that outline specific steps and measures that countries can take to prevent and respond to terrorist activities. However, the efficacy of such conventions depends on several factors.


Firstly, the success of global conventions depends on the level of participation and compliance from countries around the world. While most countries agree that terrorism is a serious threat, they may have different opinions on how to combat it. This can lead to disagreements and challenges in implementing the conventions effectively. For example, some countries may be hesitant to share information or intelligence with others, which can hinder joint efforts to combat terrorism.


Secondly, global conventions may face challenges in terms of enforcement. Even if countries agree to follow the conventions, enforcing them can be difficult. For example, some countries may not have the resources or capacity to implement the measures outlined in the conventions. Additionally, some terrorist groups may operate outside of the law and may not be deterred by the conventions.


Thirdly, the changing nature of terrorism and the emergence of new threats may make it difficult for global conventions to keep up. Terrorist groups are constantly adapting and evolving, using new tactics and technologies to carry out attacks. As such, conventions may need to be updated regularly to remain effective.


Despite these challenges, global conventions remain an important tool in the fight against terrorism. They provide a framework for countries to work together and coordinate their efforts to prevent and respond to terrorist activities. Moreover, they help to establish common norms and standards for countering terrorism, which can facilitate cooperation and information sharing among countries. Ultimately, the efficacy of global conventions in combating terrorism will depend on the willingness of countries to work together and take concrete actions to implement the measures outlined in these conventions.




4(a) Identify and evaluate the reasons for the deadlock in the WTO negotiations on fisheries

between developing and developed countries.


Answer: The negotiations on fisheries in the World Trade Organization (WTO) have been deadlocked for several years now, with developing and developed countries unable to reach an agreement. There are several reasons for this deadlock, which we can evaluate as follows:


Overfishing: One of the main reasons for the deadlock is overfishing, which is a serious concern for developing countries. They argue that developed countries are exploiting their fishing resources, leading to the depletion of fish stocks and loss of livelihoods for local fishing communities. Developing countries have therefore been demanding stronger conservation measures, including restrictions on fishing in their waters, which developed countries have been unwilling to accept.


Subsidies: Another major issue in the negotiations is subsidies for the fishing industry. Developing countries argue that subsidies by developed countries for their own fishing industries are distorting the market and putting them at a disadvantage. They have been calling for the elimination of subsidies, while developed countries have been reluctant to do so.


Technology transfer: Developing countries have also been demanding greater access to technology and knowledge for sustainable fishing practices. They argue that developed countries have the necessary technology and expertise, but have not been willing to share it. This has been a major stumbling block in the negotiations.


Political will: Finally, the lack of political will to reach an agreement has been a major factor in the deadlock. Developing countries have accused developed countries of being unwilling to compromise and of using their power within the WTO to block progress in the negotiations.


In conclusion, the deadlock in the WTO negotiations on fisheries is due to a combination of factors, including overfishing, subsidies, technology transfer, and a lack of political will. These issues are complex and have been difficult to resolve, but they need to be addressed in order to ensure sustainable fisheries and protect the livelihoods of local fishing communities.