Geography Civil Services Paper 2 Section- B, Questions 5,6_ Solutions
Q5. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each : a. Discuss the impact of Forest Rights Act, 2006 on the local forest communities in India.
The Forest Rights Act (FRA), 2006, is a landmark legislation aimed at recognizing and vesting forest rights and occupation of forestland in the local communities who depend on the forests for their livelihood. The FRA provides a legal framework for granting individual and community forest rights to forest-dwelling Scheduled Tribes (STs) and other traditional forest dwellers (OTFDs) who have been residing in or cultivating forestland for generations. The impact of the FRA, 2006, on the local forest communities in India, can be summarized as follows: Recognition of forest rights: The FRA has given recognition to the forest rights of the local forest communities, which were historically ignored or denied. It has empowered them to protect their forests and natural resources and participate in decision-making processes related to forest management. Improved livelihoods: The FRA has enabled the local forest communities to access the forest resources and traditional knowledge, which have been critical to their livelihoods. The communities have been able to engage in sustainable forest-based livelihood activities such as a collection of non-timber forest products, grazing of livestock, and cultivation of forest land. Conservation of forests: The FRA has facilitated the conservation of forests by empowering local communities to manage the forests sustainably. The communities have been able to prevent encroachment, forest fires, and unsustainable harvesting of forest resources, which have contributed to the protection of forests and biodiversity. Social empowerment: The FRA has enabled the social empowerment of local forest communities by granting them legal recognition, enhancing their self-esteem, and promoting gender equality. Women and marginalized communities have been able to assert their rights and participate in decision-making processes. Challenges: Despite the potential benefits, the implementation of the FRA has faced several challenges such as inadequate resources, insufficient capacity-building of local communities, lack of political will, and conflicts with the forest department. In conclusion, the Forest Rights Act, of 2006, has had a significant impact on the local forest communities in India by recognizing their forest rights, improving their livelihoods, promoting forest conservation, and empowering them socially. The implementation of the FRA has faced several challenges, but with sustained efforts, it has the potential to transform forest governance in India and promote sustainable development.
b. Can the Panchayat Raj institutions play a role in grassroots-level planning in India? If yes, discuss how. 10 The Panchayat Raj institutions (PRIs) in India are decentralized local self-government bodies that operate at the grassroots level. The PRIs are empowered to plan, implement, and monitor developmental programs and schemes for their respective areas. Therefore, PRIs can play a crucial role in grassroots-level planning in India. Here are some ways in which the Panchayat Raj institutions can play a role in grassroots-level planning in India: Identification of local needs: The Panchayat Raj institutions can identify local needs by conducting surveys and consulting with local communities. This information can be used to develop plans and programs that are tailored to the specific needs of the local communities. Planning and implementation of local programs: The Panchayat Raj institutions can plan and implement local programs for the development of their respective areas. These programs can range from infrastructure development to social welfare schemes such as health and education. Mobilization of local resources: The Panchayat Raj institutions can mobilize local resources such as labor, materials, and funds for the implementation of local programs. This can help to reduce the dependency on external funding and promote self-sustainability. Participatory planning: The Panchayat Raj institutions can promote participatory planning by involving local communities, especially women and marginalized groups, in the planning and implementation of local programs. This can help to ensure that the programs are inclusive and address the needs of all members of the community. Monitoring and evaluation: The Panchayat Raj institutions can monitor and evaluate the progress of local programs to ensure that they are being implemented effectively and efficiently. This can help to identify areas for improvement and ensure that the programs are achieving their intended objectives. In conclusion, the Panchayat Raj institutions can play a significant role in grassroot level planning in India by identifying local needs, planning and implementing local programs, mobilizing local resources, promoting participatory planning, and monitoring and evaluating progress. However, to achieve their full potential, PRIs need to be provided with adequate resources, capacity-building, and political support.
c. Discuss the significance of new ports on the Western Coast of India on the external trade of the country. 10 The Western Coast of India has been witnessing a surge in the development of new ports, which have been significant in enhancing the external trade of the country. The significance of new ports on the Western Coast of India on the external trade of the country can be summarized as follows: Increased connectivity: The new ports have improved the connectivity of India with the rest of the world. They provide access to new trade routes and markets, which were previously inaccessible through the traditional ports. The new ports have also reduced the transit time and costs for import and export of goods. Diversification of trade: The new ports have facilitated the diversification of trade by enabling the handling of a wide range of commodities. They have expanded the capacity of India to handle different types of cargo, such as liquid bulk, dry bulk, and containerized cargo, which has enhanced the competitiveness of Indian ports. Boost to regional development: The development of new ports has also contributed to the regional development of the areas where the ports are located. The ports have created new job opportunities and stimulated the growth of industries and businesses in the surrounding regions. Improved infrastructure: The new ports have been developed with modern infrastructure and facilities, which have enhanced the efficiency and productivity of the ports. The ports have also been equipped with state-of-the-art technology for cargo handling, storage, and transportation. Increased competitiveness: The development of new ports has increased the competitiveness of Indian ports in the global market. It has improved the ranking of Indian ports in international indices such as the World Bank's Logistics Performance Index and has attracted foreign investments in the port sector. In conclusion, the development of new ports on the Western Coast of India has been significant in enhancing the external trade of the country by increasing connectivity, diversifying trade, boosting regional development, improving infrastructure, and increasing competitiveness. The development of new ports needs to be accompanied by adequate infrastructure, efficient logistics systems, and supportive policies to ensure sustained growth and development of the port sector in India. d. How would a decline in Total Fertility Rate (TFR) below the replacement level, in many states of India affect the future population structure of the country? A decline in Total Fertility Rate (TFR) below the replacement level in many states of India would have a significant impact on the future population structure of the country. Replacement level fertility is the level at which a population replaces itself from one generation to the next without migration. Firstly, a decline in TFR would result in a decline in the population growth rate, which would lead to an aging population in the future. The proportion of older adults would increase, and the proportion of younger people would decrease. This would mean that there would be a higher dependency ratio, with fewer working-age people to support a growing population of older adults. Secondly, a decline in TFR would also affect the population's sex ratio, which is the number of males per 100 females in the population. India has a history of a skewed sex ratio, with a preference for male children leading to sex-selective abortions and female infanticide. However, a decline in TFR could lead to a more balanced sex ratio as families have fewer children and do not have a strong preference for male children. Finally, a decline in TFR would have implications for the economy and the labor force. With fewer children being born, there would be a smaller pool of young people entering the workforce in the future. This could lead to labor shortages and a higher demand for automation and technology to compensate for the lack of available workers. Overall, a decline in TFR below the replacement level in many states of India would have far-reaching implications for the country's future population structure, including an aging population, a more balanced sex ratio, and potential labor shortages. e. Kalapani dispute has opened a new front on the India-Nepal international border. Explain. 10 The Kalapani dispute is a long-standing border dispute between India and Nepal over the Kalapani area, located in the western part of Nepal along its border with India's Uttarakhand state. The dispute centers around the origin of the Kali River, which serves as the border between the two countries in this area. India claims that the border runs along the ridgeline to the east of the river, while Nepal argues that it should run along the river's main channel to the west. The dispute has recently escalated, with Nepal publishing a new political map in 2019 that showed the Kalapani area as part of Nepalese territory, leading to diplomatic tensions between the two countries. India rejected Nepal's claims and reiterated its position that the area is part of Indian territory. The dispute has opened a new front on the India-Nepal international border, with both countries deploying troops to the region and increasing border security measures. This has led to concerns about the potential for a military confrontation between the two countries, which have traditionally had close cultural and economic ties. The dispute has also had wider implications for the region, with China reportedly taking an interest in the issue and seeking to exploit the tensions between India and Nepal to expand its influence in the region. This has led to concerns about the potential for a wider regional power struggle between India and China. In conclusion, the Kalapani dispute has opened a new front on the India-Nepal international border, leading to increased tensions and concerns about the potential for a military confrontation. The dispute has also had wider regional implications, with China seeking to exploit the tensions between the two countries to expand its influence in the region.
Q6. (a) Why do disparities in development and incomes between regions persist in large countries like India ? How does the recent ADP plan address the issue? Disparities in development and incomes between regions persist in large countries like India due to a variety of factors. These factors include historical legacies of colonialism, uneven distribution of resources, varying levels of investment in infrastructure and human capital, and political factors such as corruption and regionalism. India has made significant progress in reducing poverty and improving human development indicators, but these gains have not been evenly distributed across the country. Some regions, particularly in the north and east, have lagged behind in terms of economic growth and development. This has resulted in persistent disparities in income and quality of life, which have contributed to social and political tensions. In recent years, the Indian government has taken steps to address these regional disparities through the Accelerated Development Program (ADP) plan. The ADP plan is a flagship program launched by the Indian government in 2017, aimed at accelerating economic development in the country's 115 most backward districts. Under the ADP plan, the government has allocated significant resources to these districts, including funding for infrastructure projects, agricultural development, and skill-building programs. The plan also emphasizes the need for targeted interventions to address specific challenges faced by each district. The ADP plan has several features that are designed to address the underlying causes of regional disparities in development and income. For example, the plan emphasizes the need for public-private partnerships to promote economic growth and job creation in these backward districts. It also emphasizes the need for investment in education and skill-building to improve human capital and reduce poverty. Overall, while it is too early to evaluate the impact of the ADP plan fully, it is a significant step toward addressing regional disparities in development and income in India. However, given the scale of the challenge, sustained investment and policy interventions will be needed to ensure that the benefits of economic growth and development are shared more evenly across the country. (b) Critically examine the role of IRNSS-NavIC programme on the satellite navigation system of India. The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) or NavIC (Navigation with Indian Constellation) is a satellite-based navigation system developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). It is designed to provide reliable and accurate navigation and positioning services to users within the Indian subcontinent and up to 1500 km from its borders. The IRNSS-NavIC program has had a significant impact on the satellite navigation system of India. Here are some critical aspects to examine: Improved Navigation Services: The IRNSS-NavIC program has improved the accuracy and reliability of navigation services in India. It provides a position accuracy of less than 20 meters, making it more accurate than the GPS system used by many countries. Self-reliance in Navigation Technology: The development of the IRNSS-NavIC program has reduced India's dependence on foreign navigation systems such as GPS, which are controlled by the US government. This has increased India's self-reliance in navigation technology and reduced its vulnerability to potential disruptions in foreign navigation systems. Applications in Various Sectors: The IRNSS-NavIC program has found applications in various sectors, including transportation, defense, agriculture, and disaster management. It has enabled the development of navigation-based applications such as vehicle tracking, fleet management, and precision farming, which can improve efficiency and productivity. International Recognition: The IRNSS-NavIC program has received international recognition, with the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) recognizing it as a navigational aid. This has increased India's visibility and credibility in the global navigation industry. However, there are also some critical issues with the IRNSS-NavIC program that need to be addressed: Limited Coverage: The IRNSS-NavIC program has limited coverage and cannot provide navigation services beyond 1500 km from India's borders. This restricts its usefulness in global navigation applications. Limited User Base: The user base for the IRNSS-NavIC program is still limited, and it needs to be expanded to achieve the desired impact on various sectors. Cost: The development and maintenance of the IRNSS-NavIC program require significant investment, which could be a challenge for a developing country like India. Overall, the IRNSS-NavIC program has had a significant impact on the satellite navigation system of India. It has improved navigation services, increased self-reliance in navigation technology, found applications in various sectors, and received international recognition. However, there are still some critical issues that need to be addressed to achieve the desired impact.
(c) Examine the role of high population concentration in Indian slums in making them more vulnerable during pandemic conditions like the COVID-19?
The high population concentration in Indian slums has played a significant role in making them more vulnerable during pandemic conditions like COVID-19. Here are some factors to examine:
Overcrowding: Slums in India are characterized by overcrowding, with several people living in small, cramped spaces. This makes it difficult to maintain physical distancing, which is essential in preventing the spread of COVID-19.
Poor Sanitation: Many slums in India lack access to basic sanitation facilities, such as clean water and toilets. This increases the risk of infection and makes it challenging to maintain proper hygiene practices, such as hand washing.
Limited Healthcare Access: Slum residents in India often have limited access to healthcare facilities, which are typically overcrowded and under-resourced. This can make it challenging to access testing and treatment for COVID-19, increasing the risk of transmission and mortality.
Informal Economy: Many slum residents in India work in the informal economy, with limited access to social security benefits or sick leave. This means that they may be more likely to continue working even when they are sick, increasing the risk of transmission.
Social Stigma: There is often a social stigma associated with living in a slum in India. This can make it difficult for residents to access healthcare services or seek help when they are sick, as they may fear being discriminated against or ostracized by their communities.
In conclusion, the high population concentration in Indian slums has made them more vulnerable during pandemic conditions like COVID-19. The factors contributing to this vulnerability include overcrowding, poor sanitation, limited healthcare access, informal economy, and social stigma. To address these issues, it is essential to improve access to basic services such as water, sanitation, and healthcare, as well as provide social protection measures to support vulnerable populations.