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Geography Civil Services Paper 1 Section- A, Questions 3,4_ Solutions





3. (a) Plants and animals that exist in a particular ecosystem are those that have been successful in adjusting to their habitat and environmental conditions. Elucidate with examples.


Plants and animals in an ecosystem have developed specific adaptations to survive and thrive in their particular environment. These adaptations can be physical, behavioral, or physiological, and they help these organisms to utilize resources efficiently and avoid predation or competition. Here are a few examples of such adaptations: Desert plants: Plants in the desert have adapted to the hot and dry environment by developing deep roots to reach water, thick and waxy leaves to reduce water loss, and spines or thorns to deter herbivores. Examples include cacti, succulents, and tumbleweeds. Arctic animals: Animals in the Arctic region have adapted to the cold and snowy environment by developing thick fur or feathers to insulate their bodies, storing food for winter, and migrating to warmer areas during the coldest months. Examples include polar bears, arctic foxes, and reindeer. Rainforest plants: Plants in the rainforest have adapted to the high humidity and intense competition for sunlight by developing large leaves to capture sunlight, growing tall to reach the canopy, and producing colorful flowers and fruits to attract pollinators and seed dispersers. Examples include orchids, bromeliads, and epiphytes. Camouflage: Many animals have developed camouflage, which allows them to blend in with their surroundings and avoid predation. Examples include chameleons, octopuses, and arctic hares. Hibernation: Some animals, such as bears, ground squirrels, and hedgehogs, have developed the ability to hibernate during the winter months to conserve energy and survive when food is scarce. These are just a few examples of the numerous adaptations that plants and animals have developed to adjust to their habitat and environmental conditions. The success of these adaptations determines which species are able to survive and thrive in a particular ecosystem.



3 b Discuss the role of Slope, Altitude, and Relief (SAR) in landscape development.


Slope, Altitude, and Relief (SAR) are important factors in landscape development. These factors are interrelated and influence various processes that shape the earth's surface.


Slope refers to the angle or gradient of a landform. It plays a critical role in determining the direction and rate of water flow, erosion, and deposition. Steep slopes often lead to increased rates of erosion and landslides, while gentle slopes may promote soil retention and deposition. Slope also affects the distribution of vegetation and wildlife, as steeper slopes may have different microclimates than gentler slopes.





Altitude refers to the height above sea level. It influences temperature, precipitation, and vegetation distribution. As altitude increases, temperature decreases, and precipitation may also change, leading to the formation of different biomes. For example, high-altitude areas may have cold, arid, or polar conditions that support alpine vegetation or glaciers.


Relief refers to the variation in elevation or height between different landforms. It affects the speed and direction of water flow, erosion, and deposition. Areas with high relief are often characterized by steep slopes, deep valleys, and rugged terrain. This may lead to the formation of canyons, waterfalls, and other erosional landforms.


Together, these factors influence the development of different landscapes. For example, mountainous regions with steep slopes and high relief may experience more erosion and landslides than flat or gently sloping areas. Areas with high altitudes may have unique vegetation and wildlife, such as alpine plants and mountain goats. Understanding these factors is essential in managing natural resources and conserving the environment.


4. (a) Rise of surface temperature brings severe consequences. Elaborate the potential changes and threats associated with it in the world?


The rise of surface temperatures, also known as global warming or climate change, is one of the most significant environmental issues facing the world today. The increase in temperature is primarily caused by the release of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, into the atmosphere by human activities like burning fossil fuels and deforestation. The potential consequences and threats associated with global warming are numerous and far-reaching, affecting everything from the environment and biodiversity to human health and the global economy. Here are some of the most significant changes and threats:






Increased frequency and intensity of natural disasters: With rising temperatures, natural disasters such as hurricanes, cyclones, floods, and droughts are becoming more frequent and severe, causing widespread damage and loss of life.


Loss of biodiversity: Global warming is causing changes in the timing of seasonal events, such as the blooming of flowers, and the migration patterns of animals. This can lead to mismatches between species, resulting in loss of biodiversity.


Ocean acidification: Carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere dissolves in seawater, making it more acidic. This can have harmful effects on marine life, such as slowing the growth of coral reefs and making it harder for some species to build shells.


Rising sea levels: As temperatures increase, glaciers and ice caps are melting, causing sea levels to rise. This can lead to flooding and the loss of coastal habitats and communities.


Heatwaves and health risks: Higher temperatures increase the likelihood of heatwaves, which can lead to heat exhaustion, dehydration, and other health risks, particularly in vulnerable populations such as the elderly and children.


Food insecurity: Changes in temperature and precipitation patterns can impact crop yields, leading to food shortages and higher prices. This can result in food insecurity for vulnerable populations.


Economic impacts: The costs of adapting to and mitigating the impacts of global warming are substantial and can have far-reaching economic impacts, such as increased insurance costs, reduced agricultural productivity, and lost income from tourism.


In conclusion, the potential changes and threats associated with the rise of surface temperatures are significant and far-reaching. It is essential to take urgent action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and limit the impacts of global warming to avoid catastrophic consequences for the planet and its inhabitants.


4. (b) Describe how short-term variations in temperature are related to the processes of receiving energy from the sun to the Earth's surface and dissipating it to the atmosphere.


Short-term variations in temperature are closely related to the processes of receiving energy from the sun to the Earth's surface and dissipating it to the atmosphere. The Earth's surface absorbs energy from the sun, primarily in the form of visible light and infrared radiation. This energy is then transferred to the atmosphere through several processes, including conduction, convection, and radiation.


During the day, the sun's energy heats the Earth's surface, causing it to warm up. As the surface warms, it heats the air above it through conduction. This process is responsible for the warm temperatures during the day.


At night, the Earth's surface cools down, and the air near the surface also cools. As the air cools, it becomes denser and sinks, and the warmer air above it rises. This process is known as convection and is responsible for cooler temperatures at night.


Radiation is another important process that plays a role in short-term temperature variations. The Earth's surface emits energy in the form of infrared radiation, which is absorbed by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide and water vapor. These greenhouse gases trap some of the infrared radiation and re-emit it back to the surface, keeping the Earth's surface warmer than it would be otherwise.


Short-term variations in temperature can also be influenced by other factors, such as clouds, which can reflect some of the sun's energy back to space, and humidity, which affects how much water vapor is in the air and can impact the amount of heat that is trapped in the atmosphere.


In summary, short-term variations in temperature are influenced by the processes of receiving energy from the sun to the Earth's surface and dissipating it to the atmosphere through conduction, convection, and radiation. These processes, along with other factors such as clouds and humidity, determine the temperature variations we experience on a daily basis.



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