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CLAT UG 2023 FULL SOLUTION WITH DETAILED EXPLANATION FOR QUESTION 111-135



111. Which of the following is the author most likely to agree with?

(A) The RBI must not focus solely on preventing the depreciation of the rupeeI as

that may result in negative impacts on other aspects of the economy.

(B) The RBI must focus solely on preventing the depreciation of the rupee at all

costsI since it is by far the most important indicator of the health of the Indian

economy.

(C) Periodic inflationary trends are normal in any economyI and the RBI need

not worry about the inflationary effects in the Indian economy caused by the

depreciation of the rupee.

(D) The RBI need not do anything to reduce the rate of depreciation of the rupeeI

since the depreciation of an economy’s currency is not a matter of concern in

itself.


Answer : The author is most likely to agree with option (A) - The RBI must not focus solely on preventing the depreciation of the rupee as that may result in negative impacts on other aspects of the economy.


Throughout the passage, the author emphasizes the need to consider the underlying factors causing the depreciation of the Indian rupee and the potential negative consequences of solely focusing on preventing depreciation. The passage discusses how the depreciation is occurring due to global economic headwinds, such as disrupted supply chains, rising commodity prices, and higher interest rates in developed countries. These factors have led to a higher import bill and significant outflow of portfolio investments from India, creating a demand for dollars. The passage also mentions that too much depreciation could raise domestic inflation rates and trigger a rise in policy-controlled interest rates.


Based on this information, the author acknowledges the concerns related to the depreciation of the rupee but also highlights the need to balance the depreciation with other macroeconomic factors and consider the potential negative impacts on inflation, interest rates, and the economy's foreign exchange reserves. Therefore, option (A) aligns with the author's viewpoint.




XXI. The post-truth era is expectedly marked by a discerning erosion of public trust in sources of information. Mass media — both traditional and new-age avatars — has borne the brunt of this mistrust. And for good reasons too. Social mediaI its most popular platform is a pyr of falsity. It is thus encouraging to see that at least the old guard of the media ecosystem — the newspaper — continues to defy this discouraging trend. A pan-India survey of media consumption by Lokniti found that print media remains the most trusted source of information. The finding is consistent with the heartening surge in public endorsement of the reliability of newspapers since the pandemic. An earlier survey which attempted to examine the impact of the lockdown on ‘reading patterns’, had found that the number of readers who used to spend over an hour on newspapers every day had risen to 38%, up from 16% in the pre-lockdown period. The increased trust in newspapers is because the lockdowns coincided with the dissemination of the crudest kinds of misinformation about the pandemic in India and around the world and newspapers played a pivotal role in exposing these lies.But that is where the good news ends for the print mediaI at least. Among other things the data collated by the survey found deepening footprints of social media in rural and urban constituencies while television continues to dominate the screen.These developments are consistent with global trends that reveal that the newspaper industry is struggling to contain the migration of readers and revenue to other formats especially digital media. Ironically the pandemic which saw a resurgence in collective

trust in newspapers adversely affected the print media as traditional advertisers reeling under the economic fallouts of Covid-19 cut back on advertisements. But the crisis in print precedes the pandemic. Newspapers have been outpaced by speedier but also spurious sources of information. The dominance of the image over text as a cultural phenomenon is another formidable challenge. The print media’s hopes of remaining competitive and profitable must therefore centre on using this collective trust as a form of capital. Survival strategies especially the revenue model must be re-explored and the emphasis shifted to in-depth analyses of news as well as eyecatching layouts now that newspapers are slower to reach news to the audience.


112. Which of the following is the author most likely to agree with?

(A) The Covid-19 pandemic was an unmitigated disaster for the newspaper industry.

(B) The Covid-19 pandemic had negative as well as positive effects on the newspaper industry.

(C) The Covid-19 pandemic only had good effects on the newspaper industry.

(D) The Covid-19 pandemic had no effect at all on the newspaper industry.


Answer : Based on the information provided, the author is most likely to agree with option (B) The Covid-19 pandemic had negative as well as positive effects on the newspaper industry. The passage mentions that the pandemic adversely affected the print media, with traditional advertisers cutting back on advertisements due to economic fallouts. However, it also states that the pandemic led to a resurgence in collective trust in newspapers as they played a pivotal role in exposing misinformation about the pandemic. Therefore, the author recognizes both negative and positive effects of the pandemic on the newspaper industry.



113. Which of the following if true would most weaken the author’s arguments?

(A) Social media is a reliable source of true and accurate news and information.

(B) Social media is a highly unreliable source of news and information and should

not be trusted.

(C) Social media is a good way for people to stay connected with each other.

(D) Social media is a speedier source of information than newspapers.


Answer : The statement that would most weaken the author's arguments is (B) "Social media is a highly unreliable source of news and information and should not be trusted."


The author's main argument revolves around the erosion of public trust in sources of information and the continued trust in newspapers. If it is established that social media is highly unreliable and should not be trusted, it weakens the author's assertion that newspapers are the most trusted source of information. It suggests that social media is not a viable alternative to newspapers and that the public's endorsement of newspapers is based on their recognition of the unreliability of social media.



114. Which of the following would be an effective way of making print media more

competitive?

(A) Slowing down the process of print media production.

(B) Using more expensive printing methods that achieve better print quality even if it results in newspapers becoming more expensive.

(C) Only publishing newspapers on alternate days.

(D) Developing ways of ensuring that print media can reach readers more speedily.


Answer : (D) Developing ways of ensuring that print media can reach readers more speedily.


In the given context, where the dominance of digital media and social media is impacting the print media industry, finding ways to improve the speed of delivering newspapers to readers can be an effective strategy to make print media more competitive. Speed is crucial in today's fast-paced world, where people have become accustomed to instant access to information through digital platforms. By improving the delivery mechanisms, such as optimizing distribution networks, enhancing logistics, and leveraging technology, print media can ensure that their newspapers reach readers in a timely manner. This would help retain readers who value the credibility and trustworthiness of newspapers but also desire up-to-date information.



115. Based on the author’s arguments which of the following if true would have

resulted in the weakening rather than deepening of public trust in newspapers since the pandemic?

(A) Newspapers were very careful in ensuring they reported accurate and true news during the lockdowns.

(B) Newspapers played a leading role in exposing lies and misinformation spread during the lockdown.

(C) Newspapers actively disseminated misinformation during the lockdowns and made no efforts to expose lies spread by others.

(D) Newspapers alerted the public to the fact that a number of sources were spreading crude forms of misinformation during the pandemic.


Answer : Based on the author's arguments, if option (C) were true, it would have resulted in the weakening rather than deepening of public trust in newspapers since the pandemic. The author mentions that the increased trust in newspapers is because they played a pivotal role in exposing misinformation about the pandemic. If newspapers actively disseminated misinformation and made no efforts to expose lies spread by others, it would contradict the author's claim and undermine the trust placed in newspapers.



116. What would be the impact on the readership and revenues of the print media if

the image were not dominant over text as a cultural phenomenon?

(A) Print media would not suffer as much of a reduction in readership and revenue as readers shifted to other formats.

(B) Print media would suffer a greater reduction in readership and revenue as readers shifted to other formats.

(C) There would be no impact on the readership and revenues of the print industry.

(D) There would be an increased demand from readers that newspapers carry more images and less text.


Answer : The impact on the readership and revenues of the print media if the image were not dominant over text as a cultural phenomenon would likely be as follows:


(B) Print media would suffer a greater reduction in readership and revenue as readers shifted to other formats.


The dominance of the image over text has been a significant challenge for the print media industry. If the image were not dominant, it would imply a shift in cultural preferences towards a greater emphasis on text-based content. In such a scenario, print media, which relies heavily on textual content, would likely experience a reduction in readership and revenues. Readers who prefer image-centric formats might be more inclined to switch to other media formats that offer a visually engaging experience, such as digital media or social media platforms. This would result in a decline in the audience base for print media, impacting its readership and advertising revenue.


Option (A) is unlikely because even if readers shift to other formats, the reduction in readership and revenue would still affect print media, although the extent of the impact may vary.


Option (C) is not likely as any significant shift in cultural preferences would inevitably have an impact on the readership and revenues of the print industry.


Option (D) is less probable because if the image were not dominant, readers might still appreciate a balance between text and visuals. While some readers may prefer more images, it is unlikely to be a widespread demand to carry more images and less text in newspapers.