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CLAT UG 2023 FULL SOLUTION WITH DETAILED EXPLANATION FOR QUESTION 111-135



111. Which of the following is the author most likely to agree with?

(A) The RBI must not focus solely on preventing the depreciation of the rupeeI as

that may result in negative impacts on other aspects of the economy.

(B) The RBI must focus solely on preventing the depreciation of the rupee at all

costsI since it is by far the most important indicator of the health of the Indian

economy.

(C) Periodic inflationary trends are normal in any economyI and the RBI need

not worry about the inflationary effects in the Indian economy caused by the

depreciation of the rupee.

(D) The RBI need not do anything to reduce the rate of depreciation of the rupeeI

since the depreciation of an economy’s currency is not a matter of concern in

itself.


Answer : The author is most likely to agree with option (A) - The RBI must not focus solely on preventing the depreciation of the rupee as that may result in negative impacts on other aspects of the economy.


Throughout the passage, the author emphasizes the need to consider the underlying factors causing the depreciation of the Indian rupee and the potential negative consequences of solely focusing on preventing depreciation. The passage discusses how the depreciation is occurring due to global economic headwinds, such as disrupted supply chains, rising commodity prices, and higher interest rates in developed countries. These factors have led to a higher import bill and significant outflow of portfolio investments from India, creating a demand for dollars. The passage also mentions that too much depreciation could raise domestic inflation rates and trigger a rise in policy-controlled interest rates.


Based on this information, the author acknowledges the concerns related to the depreciation of the rupee but also highlights the need to balance the depreciation with other macroeconomic factors and consider the potential negative impacts on inflation, interest rates, and the economy's foreign exchange reserves. Therefore, option (A) aligns with the author's viewpoint.




XXI. The post-truth era is expectedly marked by a discerning erosion of public trust in sources of information. Mass media — both traditional and new-age avatars — has borne the brunt of this mistrust. And for good reasons too. Social mediaI its most popular platform is a pyr of falsity. It is thus encouraging to see that at least the old guard of the media ecosystem — the newspaper — continues to defy this discouraging trend. A pan-India survey of media consumption by Lokniti found that print media remains the most trusted source of information. The finding is consistent with the heartening surge in public endorsement of the reliability of newspapers since the pandemic. An earlier survey which attempted to examine the impact of the lockdown on ‘reading patterns’, had found that the number of readers who used to spend over an hour on newspapers every day had risen to 38%, up from 16% in the pre-lockdown period. The increased trust in newspapers is because the lockdowns coincided with the dissemination of the crudest kinds of misinformation about the pandemic in India and around the world and newspapers played a pivotal role in exposing these lies.But that is where the good news ends for the print mediaI at least. Among other things the data collated by the survey found deepening footprints of social media in rural and urban constituencies while television continues to dominate the screen.These developments are consistent with global trends that reveal that the newspaper industry is struggling to contain the migration of readers and revenue to other formats especially digital media. Ironically the pandemic which saw a resurgence in collective

trust in newspapers adversely affected the print media as traditional advertisers reeling under the economic fallouts of Covid-19 cut back on advertisements. But the crisis in print precedes the pandemic. Newspapers have been outpaced by speedier but also spurious sources of information. The dominance of the image over text as a cultural phenomenon is another formidable challenge. The print media’s hopes of remaining competitive and profitable must therefore centre on using this collective trust as a form of capital. Survival strategies especially the revenue model must be re-explored and the emphasis shifted to in-depth analyses of news as well as eyecatching layouts now that newspapers are slower to reach news to the audience.


112. Which of the following is the author most likely to agree with?

(A) The Covid-19 pandemic was an unmitigated disaster for the newspaper industry.

(B) The Covid-19 pandemic had negative as well as positive effects on the newspaper industry.

(C) The Covid-19 pandemic only had good effects on the newspaper industry.

(D) The Covid-19 pandemic had no effect at all on the newspaper industry.


Answer : Based on the information provided, the author is most likely to agree with option (B) The Covid-19 pandemic had negative as well as positive effects on the newspaper industry. The passage mentions that the pandemic adversely affected the print media, with traditional advertisers cutting back on advertisements due to economic fallouts. However, it also states that the pandemic led to a resurgence in collective trust in newspapers as they played a pivotal role in exposing misinformation about the pandemic. Therefore, the author recognizes both negative and positive effects of the pandemic on the newspaper industry.



113. Which of the following if true would most weaken the author’s arguments?

(A) Social media is a reliable source of true and accurate news and information.

(B) Social media is a highly unreliable source of news and information and should

not be trusted.

(C) Social media is a good way for people to stay connected with each other.

(D) Social media is a speedier source of information than newspapers.


Answer : The statement that would most weaken the author's arguments is (B) "Social media is a highly unreliable source of news and information and should not be trusted."


The author's main argument revolves around the erosion of public trust in sources of information and the continued trust in newspapers. If it is established that social media is highly unreliable and should not be trusted, it weakens the author's assertion that newspapers are the most trusted source of information. It suggests that social media is not a viable alternative to newspapers and that the public's endorsement of newspapers is based on their recognition of the unreliability of social media.



114. Which of the following would be an effective way of making print media more

competitive?

(A) Slowing down the process of print media production.

(B) Using more expensive printing methods that achieve better print quality even if it results in newspapers becoming more expensive.

(C) Only publishing newspapers on alternate days.

(D) Developing ways of ensuring that print media can reach readers more speedily.


Answer : (D) Developing ways of ensuring that print media can reach readers more speedily.


In the given context, where the dominance of digital media and social media is impacting the print media industry, finding ways to improve the speed of delivering newspapers to readers can be an effective strategy to make print media more competitive. Speed is crucial in today's fast-paced world, where people have become accustomed to instant access to information through digital platforms. By improving the delivery mechanisms, such as optimizing distribution networks, enhancing logistics, and leveraging technology, print media can ensure that their newspapers reach readers in a timely manner. This would help retain readers who value the credibility and trustworthiness of newspapers but also desire up-to-date information.



115. Based on the author’s arguments which of the following if true would have

resulted in the weakening rather than deepening of public trust in newspapers since the pandemic?

(A) Newspapers were very careful in ensuring they reported accurate and true news during the lockdowns.

(B) Newspapers played a leading role in exposing lies and misinformation spread during the lockdown.

(C) Newspapers actively disseminated misinformation during the lockdowns and made no efforts to expose lies spread by others.

(D) Newspapers alerted the public to the fact that a number of sources were spreading crude forms of misinformation during the pandemic.


Answer : Based on the author's arguments, if option (C) were true, it would have resulted in the weakening rather than deepening of public trust in newspapers since the pandemic. The author mentions that the increased trust in newspapers is because they played a pivotal role in exposing misinformation about the pandemic. If newspapers actively disseminated misinformation and made no efforts to expose lies spread by others, it would contradict the author's claim and undermine the trust placed in newspapers.



116. What would be the impact on the readership and revenues of the print media if

the image were not dominant over text as a cultural phenomenon?

(A) Print media would not suffer as much of a reduction in readership and revenue as readers shifted to other formats.

(B) Print media would suffer a greater reduction in readership and revenue as readers shifted to other formats.

(C) There would be no impact on the readership and revenues of the print industry.

(D) There would be an increased demand from readers that newspapers carry more images and less text.


Answer : The impact on the readership and revenues of the print media if the image were not dominant over text as a cultural phenomenon would likely be as follows:


(B) Print media would suffer a greater reduction in readership and revenue as readers shifted to other formats.


The dominance of the image over text has been a significant challenge for the print media industry. If the image were not dominant, it would imply a shift in cultural preferences towards a greater emphasis on text-based content. In such a scenario, print media, which relies heavily on textual content, would likely experience a reduction in readership and revenues. Readers who prefer image-centric formats might be more inclined to switch to other media formats that offer a visually engaging experience, such as digital media or social media platforms. This would result in a decline in the audience base for print media, impacting its readership and advertising revenue.


Option (A) is unlikely because even if readers shift to other formats, the reduction in readership and revenue would still affect print media, although the extent of the impact may vary.


Option (C) is not likely as any significant shift in cultural preferences would inevitably have an impact on the readership and revenues of the print industry.


Option (D) is less probable because if the image were not dominant, readers might still appreciate a balance between text and visuals. While some readers may prefer more images, it is unlikely to be a widespread demand to carry more images and less text in newspapers.



117. How does the author suggest newspapers can overcome the problem of being outpaced by speedier sources of information?

(A) They offer direct means by which newspapers can become faster to publish

and deliver to readers.

(B) They encourage a complete and immediate shift to digital media as a way of ensuring newspapers are not outpaced by other sources of information.

(C) They offer ways to reduce production costs which would offset the losses caused by readers shifting allegiance to faster sources of information.

(D) They offer alternative means for newspapers to become competitive and profitable but do not solve the problem of how newspapers can become faster sources of information.


Answer : Based on the given information, the author suggests that newspapers can overcome the problem of being outpaced by speedier sources of information by adopting alternative means to become competitive and profitable. Therefore, the answer is (D) They offer alternative means for newspapers to become competitive and profitable but do not solve the problem of how newspapers can become faster sources of information.




XXII. In this moment the developed countries — I point to them because these countries have already burnt massive amounts of carbon dioxide for energy to build their economies — are faced with a real energy conundrum. On the one hand developed countries are battered because of a fast-heating planet; temperatures have gone through the roof; droughts and extreme weather events are hitting them as well. On the other hand ordinary people in these countries are worried not just because of climate change but because of the lack of energy to heat their homes this coming winter. In the USI gas prices went up in summerI so much so that people travelled less and consumption of fuel dropped. But now prices are down and it is business as usual.The fact is that this energy disruption has provided the much-needed vault to the beleaguered fossil fuel industry. Governments are asking this industry to supply more.Europe has baptised natural gas a fossil fuel less polluting than coal but still a major emitter of carbon dioxide as “clean”. The US has passed a climate bill which will invest in renewable energy but conditional to increased spends on oil and gas and the opening up of millions of hectares of federal land for drilling. Through this bill the US will do more than ever before to build a manufacturing base for renewable energy particularly solar.

Europe even in this desperate scramble for gas is working to ramp up its investment in renewable power. So it is the worst of times. It could be the best of times but there are some caveats. One, this renewed interest in fossil fuels must remain temporary and transient. Given the nature of economies once the investment has been made in this new infrastructure or the supply of fossil fuel has increased from new oil and gas discoveries it will be difficult to wean off. Two these countries should not be entitled to more use of fossil fuels in our world of shrunk carbon budgets. They need to reduce emissions drastically and leave whatever little carbon budget space that is remaining to poorer countries to use thereby satisfying such poorer countries’ demands.


118. Which of the following is the author most likely to agree with?

(A) People in the US are not worried at all about climate change.

(B) People in the US are worried about climate change and these concerns affect their energy consumption habits more than anything else.

(C) Climate change has resulted in the increase of energy prices across the world and as a result governments have had to invest in finding newer sources of renewable energy.

(D) Changes in the energy consumption habits of people in the US are affected more by energy prices than concerns of climate change.


Answer : Based on the given information, the author is most likely to agree with option (D) - Changes in the energy consumption habits of people in the US are affected more by energy prices than concerns of climate change.


The passage states that gas prices in the US went up in the summer, causing people to travel less and reduce fuel consumption. However, when prices went down, people returned to their normal consumption patterns. This suggests that fluctuations in energy prices have a significant impact on energy consumption habits in the US.


While the passage mentions that ordinary people in developed countries are worried about climate change, it emphasizes that their immediate concern is the lack of energy to heat their homes in the coming winter. Therefore, the primary driver of changes in energy consumption habits appears to be energy prices rather than concerns about climate change.



119. Which of the following is most similar to the author’s statements about developed

countries’ renewed interest in fossil fuels?

(A) Developed countries should notI under any circumstancesI invest any resources

in fossil fuel energy extraction and must immediately put a halt to all fossil fuel consumption.

(B) Things could improve if developed countries recognise the difficulty of moving away from reliance on such sources of energy and make a conscious effort to move to alternate or renewable energy sources quickly.

(C) Since investments in energy extraction of any kind are very expensive

developed countries must ensure that they make permanent and continuing investments in fossil fuels.

(D) Developing countries must not under any circumstances consume fossil fuels and

leave whatever carbon budget space is remaining to richer countries to use.


Answer : The most similar statement to the author's perspective would be (B) "Things could improve if developed countries recognize the difficulty of moving away from reliance on such sources of energy and make a conscious effort to move to alternate or renewable energy sources quickly."


This statement acknowledges the challenges faced by developed countries in transitioning away from fossil fuels while suggesting that they should make a conscious effort to shift to renewable energy sources. It aligns with the author's view that the renewed interest in fossil fuels should be temporary and that developed countries should reduce emissions and leave remaining carbon budget space to poorer countries.



120. If the information in the passage above is correct which of the following must necessarily be true?

(A) The fossil fuel industry in developing countries will face reduced sales in the short term with increased sales in the long term.

(B) The cost of making installing and using solar panels will reduce substantially in the coming years.

(C) Passing a bill in the US is a huge effortI and it would not have been possible to pass the new climate bill unless the current energy crisis had compelled lawmakers to do so.

(D) The fossil fuel industry in developing countries will see an increase in businessI

at least in the short term.


Answer : Based on the information provided in the passage, the following statement must necessarily be true:


(D) The fossil fuel industry in developing countries will see an increase in business at least in the short term.


The passage mentions that developed countries, facing an energy conundrum and a lack of energy for heating homes, are asking the fossil fuel industry to supply more. Therefore, it can be inferred that the fossil fuel industry in developing countries will experience increased business at least in the short term to meet the energy demands.



121. Which of the following if trueI would most weaken the author’s argument about

why travel and fuel consumption in the US reduced in summer?

(A) People like to travel regardless of season and the only thing that would prevent them from travelling at any time of the year would be high costs.

(B) Airlines raised ticket prices as a response to increase in fuel prices and therefore fewer people were able to buy air tickets to travel.

(C) Strict lockdowns were imposed in the US in summerI because of which people travelled less; further temperatures were moderate and this meant people had to use less fuel to heat or warm their homes.

(D) Widespread geopolitical tensions in the first half of the year meant that fuel prices were at an all-time high in summer; but prices have now eased off somewhat making fuel slightly more affordable in the US.


Answer : The statement that, if true, would most weaken the author's argument about why travel and fuel consumption in the US reduced in summer is (C) Strict lockdowns were imposed in the US in summer because of which people traveled less; further temperatures were moderate, and this meant people had to use less fuel to heat or warm their homes.


If strict lockdowns were imposed during the summer, it would explain why people traveled less, as restrictions on movement would have been in place. Additionally, if temperatures were moderate, people would have had less need to use fuel for heating or cooling purposes, further reducing fuel consumption. This explanation counters the author's argument that high gas prices were the primary reason for reduced travel and fuel consumption in the US.



122. Which of the following if true would resolve the ‘conundrum’ the author says developed countries face now?

(A) The development of adequate renewable power sources in the near term that would lead to a reduction in consumption of fossil fuels.

(B) Finding new sources of fossil fuels that will ensure there is no shortage of energy to heat homes in the winter.

(C) Switching immediately to renewable power sourcesI even if it leads to a shortage in energy supply for people.

(D) Providing adequate aid to poorer countries so that they can develop renewable power sources for their use.


Answer : Based on the information provided in the passage, option (A) would resolve the conundrum the author mentions. The passage states that developed countries are facing a dilemma due to the fast-heating planet and the lack of energy to heat homes in the coming winter. It also mentions that governments are investing in renewable energy and the manufacturing base for solar power. Therefore, the development of adequate renewable power sources in the near term would reduce the consumption of fossil fuels and address both concerns: climate change and energy supply.



123. Assuming the aim of the US climate bill is to reduce fossil fuel consumption which of the following would be the strongest argument that it will fail to achieve such an aim?

(A) The bill promotes investments in renewable energy but does not provide for enough increase in investments in developing more sources of fossil fuel-powered energy.

(B) The bill is written in technical language which ordinary people cannot easily understand.

(C) The bill is self-defeating since it makes investments in renewable energy conditional to more expenditure on oil and gas and making millions of hectares of federal land available for drilling which would lead to an increased consumption of fossil fuels.

(D) The bill does not provide any means of increasing carbon budgets thereby making more room for fossil fuel consumption.


Answer : The strongest argument that the US climate bill will fail to achieve the aim of reducing fossil fuel consumption would be (C) The bill is self-defeating since it makes investments in renewable energy conditional to more expenditure on oil and gas and making millions of hectares of federal land available for drilling which would lead to increased consumption of fossil fuels.


This argument suggests that the bill's provisions, such as requiring increased spending on oil and gas and opening up federal land for drilling, contradict the goal of reducing fossil fuel consumption. By promoting and supporting the fossil fuel industry alongside renewable energy, the bill may inadvertently perpetuate and even increase the consumption of fossil fuels, undermining the overall objective of reducing reliance on these carbon-intensive energy sources.



XXIII. While men and women are both considered to be more capable as they get older only women bear the brunt of being seen as “less warm” as they age new research has found. This series of studies is reportedly the first to look at both gender and age to determine how perceptions of women and men differ. “It’s just stunning… These stereotypes are so hard-wired and deeply entrenched that they come out even when absolutely identical information is provided about a man and a woman” Jennifer Chatman, Distinguished Professor of Management at UC Berkeley’s Haas School of Business said. In an analysis of professors’ evaluations female professors witnessed a decline as they moved from their 30s to 40s hitting an all-time low around the age of 47. All this while the evaluation of male professors remained consistent. Interestingly after the age of 47 the evaluations for women increased again becoming equal with those of men around the early 60s. “At that point there are different stereotypes of women and they may benefit from being seen as more grandmotherly” said Laura KrayI faculty director of the Center for Equity Gender and Leadership at Berkeley Haas and an author of the study.

Women around the age of mid 30s to late 40s also face what is called “the motherhood penalty” where assumptions around parenting duties lead people to believe women are less committed to their careers than men. This has several repercussions most particularly evident in hiring promotions and wages. Women executives further pointed out that they face “hyper-scrutiny” and “scepticism” which harks back to perceptions of likeability versus agency. Gendered networks in the workplace with men gaining greater access to senior leaders become cemented mid-career pose another difficulty for working women. Negative perceptions of women in middle-age can also be linked to stereotypes around menopause. In 2008, psychologists studied the attitudes of people towards women in different reproductive stages. They found that while the pregnant women or the woman with the baby were thought about in glowing terms menopausal women were associated with negative emotions illness and ageing.


124. Which of the following is most likely to be true if the author’s statements about gendered networks in the workplace are true?

(A) Mid-career women do not find it as easy to get access to senior leaders who are usually male as their male colleagues. They therefore find career progression or new opportunities easier to come by.

(B) Mid-career women find it easier to get access to senior leadersI who are usually male as their male colleagues. They therefore find career progression or new opportunities easier to come by.

(C) Mid-career women do not find it as easy to get access to senior leaders who are usually male as their male colleagues. They therefore find career progression or new opportunities harder to come by.

(D) Mid-career women find it easier to get access to senior leadersI who are usually male as their male colleagues. They therefore do not find career progression or new opportunities harder to come by.


Answer : The most likely statement to be true based on the author's statements about gendered networks in the workplace is:


(C) Mid-career women do not find it as easy to get access to senior leaders who are usually male as their male colleagues. They therefore find career progression or new opportunities harder to come by.



125. Which of the following is most likely to be an outcome of what the author describes as the “motherhood penalty”?

(A) People are more hesitant to hire men from their mid 30s to their late 40s but may be more willing to hire women of a similar age.

(B) People are more hesitant to hire women from their mid 3Ms to their late 40s but may be more willing to hire men of a similar age.

(C) Women from their mid 30s to their late 40s always prioritise parenting responsibilities and so are not really interested in pursuing a career.

(D) Women who have children are less committed to their careers than men.


Answer : The most likely outcome of what the author describes as the "motherhood penalty" is option (B): People are more hesitant to hire women from their mid 30s to their late 40s but may be more willing to hire men of a similar age.


The "motherhood penalty" refers to the assumption that women with children are less committed to their careers compared to men or women without children. This assumption leads to biases in hiring and promotions, resulting in women experiencing difficulties in advancing their careers during their mid-30s to late 40s.



126. If professors’ evaluations are the most important criteria in awarding promotions

then which of the following would be the most likely outcome based on the information provided in the passage?

(A) Male professors are likely to be promoted at an even rate throughout their career while women professors would experience a lower likelihood of promotion in the mid-career stage.

(B) Since there is a wide disparity between the evaluations that male and female professors receive the practice of relying upon such evaluations will quickly be abandoned.

(C) Male and female professors will receive promotions at a similar rate throughout the course of their career.

(D) Women professors are likely to be promoted at an even rate throughout their career while male professors would experience a lower likelihood of promotion in the mid-career stage.


Answer : Based on the information provided in the passage, the most likely outcome regarding promotions based on professors' evaluations would be:


(D) Women professors are likely to be promoted at an even rate throughout their career, while male professors would experience a lower likelihood of promotion in the mid-career stage.


The passage states that female professors witnessed a decline in evaluations as they moved from their 30s to 40s, hitting an all-time low around the age of 47. On the other hand, the evaluations for male professors remained consistent. After the age of 47, the evaluations for women increased again, becoming equal to those of men around the early 60s. This suggests that women may face a disadvantage in mid-career promotions based on these evaluations, while men may have a more even rate of promotion throughout their career.



127. Which of the following is the author most likely to disagree with?

(A) Women going through menopause often quit the workforce voluntarily.

(B) Women going through menopause are more likely to be perceived negatively at the workplace and to have difficulty achieving professional success.

(C) Women going through menopause should be permitted to take a mid-career sabbatical.

(D) Women going through menopause are more likely to be perceived positively at the workplace and to achieve professional success.


Answer : Based on the information provided, the author is likely to disagree with option (D) "Women going through menopause are more likely to be perceived positively at the workplace and to achieve professional success." The passage states that negative perceptions of women in middle-age can be linked to stereotypes around menopause, and a 2008 study found that menopausal women were associated with negative emotions, illness, and aging. Therefore, it suggests that women going through menopause may face challenges and negative perceptions in the workplace, rather than being perceived positively and achieving professional success.



128. Which of the following if true would most strengthen the main argument in the passage?

(A) Several independent studies conducted in different countries have shown that women in the workplace are perceived positively and are favourably treated as they age.

(B) Several independent studies conducted in different countries have shown that women in the workplace are perceived negatively and are unfairly treated as they age.

(C) The studies mentioned in the passage have been discredited after they were published and no reliance should be placed on them.

(D) The studies mentioned in the passage were conducted on very small sample sets and cannot be used to make general statements about the difference in perception between men and women.


Answer : The option that would most strengthen the main argument in the passage is (B) "Several independent studies conducted in different countries have shown that women in the workplace are perceived negatively and are unfairly treated as they age."


This option aligns with the main argument presented in the passage, which discusses the findings of studies showing that women are seen as "less warm" as they age, while men do not face the same negative perceptions. By stating that several independent studies conducted in different countries have shown a similar pattern of negative perception and unfair treatment of women as they age, it provides additional evidence to support the argument and reinforces the claim made by Jennifer Chatman and Laura Kray in the passage.



129. Which of the following if true would most weaken Laura Kray’s arguments?

(A) Women professors perceived as being ‘grandmotherly’ are regarded as being

likeable and caring.

(B) Women professors perceived as being ‘grandmotherly’ are treated better by their colleagues and students.

(C) Women professors perceived as being ‘grandmotherly’ are regarded as being slow inefficient and outdated in their field.

(D) Women professors perceived as being ‘grandmotherly’ are regarded very highly and receive much more respect than younger women professors.


Answer : The statement that would most weaken Laura Kray's arguments is (C) Women professors perceived as being 'grandmotherly' are regarded as being slow, inefficient, and outdated in their field.


If this statement were true, it would suggest that being perceived as "grandmotherly" has negative consequences for women professors, as they would be seen as less competent and effective in their work. This would undermine Kray's argument that women benefit from being seen as more grandmotherly in terms of their evaluations.


Options (A), (B), and (D) all suggest positive outcomes or perceptions associated with being perceived as grandmotherly, which would support Kray's argument.



XXIV. Why are we humans so susceptible to the doom and gloom of the news? Two reasons.

The first is what psychologists call negativity bias: we’re more attuned to the bad than the good. Back in our hunting and gathering days we were better off being frightened of a spider or a snake a hundred times too often than one time too few. Too much fear wouldn’t kill you; too little surely would.

Second we’re also burdened with an availability bias. If we can easily recall examples of a given thing we assume that thing is relatively common. The fact that we’re bombarded daily with horrific stories about aircraft disasters child snatchers and beheadings —

which tend to lodge in the memory — completely skews our view of the world.

In this digital age the news we’re being fed is only getting more extreme. In the old days journalists didn’t know much about their individual readers. They wrote for the masses. But the people behind Facebook, Twitter and Google know you well. They know what shocks and horrifies youI they know what makes you click. They know how to grab your attention and hold it so they can serve you the most lucrative helping of personalised ads. This modern media frenzy is nothing less than an assault on the mundane. Because

let’s be honest the lives of most people are pretty predictable. Nice but boring. So while we’d prefer having nice neighbours with boring lives ‘boring’ won’t make you sit up and take notice. ‘Nice’ doesn’t sell ads. And so Silicon Valley keeps dishing us up ever more sensational clickbait knowing full wellI as a Swiss novelist once quipped, that “News is to the mind what sugar is to the body.”



130. Which of the following if true would most weaken the author’s arguments?

(A) Behavioural traits that helped us in the days when we were hunter-gatherers

continue to be present in modern-day humans.

(B) Behavioural traits that helped us in the days when we were hunter-gatherers

are no longer found in modern-day humans.

(C) The negativity bias makes us more likely to be affected by depressing or sad

news.

(D) We have certain behavioural characteristics that affect how we perceive and

are affected by sad news.


Answer : The correct answer that would most weaken the author's arguments is (B) "Behavioural traits that helped us in the days when we were hunter-gatherers are no longer found in modern-day humans."


If this statement were true, it would suggest that the negativity bias and availability bias described by the author are not inherent traits in modern humans. Therefore, the arguments made by the author about why humans are susceptible to the doom and gloom of the news would be undermined.



131. Which of the following is the author most likely to agree with?

(A) Contemporary media continuously exposes us to exciting news and information which may be just like the things we usually experience in our lives.

(B) Contemporary media continuously exposes us to exciting news and information which may be very unlike the kinds of things we usually encounter in our lives.

(C) Contemporary media continuously exposes us to boring news and information which may be very unlike the kinds of things we usually encounter in our lives.

(D) Contemporary media continuously exposes us to boring news and information which may be just like the things we usually experience in our lives.


Answer : The author is most likely to agree with option (B): "Contemporary media continuously exposes us to exciting news and information which may be very unlike the kinds of things we usually encounter in our lives." According to the passage, the author argues that the news we are exposed to in the digital age is becoming more extreme and sensationalized, which is different from the mundane and predictable lives that most people lead. The author also mentions that media companies use personalized ads and clickbait to grab our attention and serve us sensational content. Therefore, option (B) aligns with the author's viewpoint.



132. Based only on the author’s statement that “we’d prefer having nice neighbours with

boring lives”, and the author’s argument about the nature of news that modern media exposes us to, which of the following would the author be most likely to agree with?

(A) Constantly being exposed to negative news gives us a warped perspective of the world.

(B) In our hunting and gathering days, it was better for us to be unnecessarily scared rather than being scared too little.

(C) The news modern media exposes us to is just like our day-to-day experiences.

(D) The news modern media exposes us to is very different from our day-to-day experiences.


Answer : Based on the information provided, the author would be most likely to agree with option (A) Constantly being exposed to negative news gives us a warped perspective of the world. The author discusses the psychological concept of negativity bias and how it makes us more attuned to the bad rather than the good. They also mention that the news we are bombarded with skews our view of the world. This suggests that constant exposure to negative news can distort our perception of reality.



133. The author’s statements about negativity bias, if trueI provide most support for

which of the following conclusions?

(A) We are more likely to notice a story about a billionaire donating their money to charity than a story about an airplane crash.

(B) We are more likely to be attracted to a news article about a rise in life expectancy in our country than a news article about a murder in our city.

(C) We are more likely to notice a story about increasing pollution levels than a story about improving educational levels in schools.

(D) We are more likely to form our opinion of the world based on the information available to us rather than information we do not have access to.


Answer : The author's statements about negativity bias would most support option (C) - "We are more likely to notice a story about increasing pollution levels than a story about improving educational levels in schools."


The author explains that humans have a tendency to be more attuned to the negative aspects of news due to negativity bias. This bias evolved from our ancestral days when being overly cautious and fearful of potential dangers was advantageous for survival. As a result, we are more likely to pay attention to negative or threatening information.


In the given options, (C) aligns with this concept. The story about increasing pollution levels represents a negative aspect, which is more likely to catch our attention, while the story about improving educational levels in schools represents a positive aspect that may not immediately stand out to us due to our negativity bias.



134. Which of the following would be the most effective way of countering the effects of what the author describes as our ‘availability bias’?

(A) Ensuring that we do not seek out news sources and stories that we may not otherwise have been exposed to.

(B) Following only one news source and limiting our perspective of the world to that one source.

(C) Avoiding all positive news stories, and instead only reading news stories about disasters and tragedies.

(D) Ensuring that we seek out news sources and stories that we may not otherwise

have been exposed to.


Answer : The most effective way of countering the effects of the availability bias described by the author would be option (D): ensuring that we seek out news sources and stories that we may not otherwise have been exposed to.


The availability bias occurs when we judge the frequency or likelihood of an event based on how easily examples of it come to mind. In the context of news consumption, if we are constantly exposed to negative and sensationalized news stories, they become more memorable and easily accessible in our minds. This can lead to an inaccurate perception of the world, as we start to believe that negative events are more common than they actually are.


By actively seeking out news sources and stories that provide a more balanced and diverse view of the world, we can counter the availability bias. Exposing ourselves to a wider range of news and perspectives helps us gain a more accurate understanding of reality. It allows us to see the positive aspects of life, the progress being made, and the everyday stories that may not grab headlines but still contribute to the overall fabric of society.


Option (A) suggests avoiding news sources and stories altogether, which would not address the availability bias but rather result in ignorance. Option (B) of following only one news source limits our perspective and can reinforce existing biases. Option (C) of avoiding positive news stories would contribute to a skewed view of the world, focusing solely on disasters and tragedies.


Therefore, actively seeking out diverse news sources and stories is the most effective way to counter the availability bias and have a more balanced understanding of the world.



135. The author says that “The fact that we’re bombarded daily with horrific stories

about aircraft disasters, child snatchers and beheadings — which tend to lodge in the memory — completely skews our view of the world.” The conclusion the author draws in this argument follows logically if which of the following is assumed?

(A) Our ideas about the world are shaped by the information we are exposed to.

(B) Modern media is concerned only with making massive profits.

(C) Modern journalists generate news stories much faster than in the old days.

(D) Humans once lived as hunter-gatherers.


Answer : The conclusion the author draws in this argument follows logically if the assumption (A) Our ideas about the world are shaped by the information we are exposed to is true.




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