Anthropology Civil Services Paper 2 Section- B, Questions 7,8_ Solutions
7. (a) Discuss the views of G. S. Ghurye and Verrier Elwin on the approach towards tribal populations. What are the policies of the Government of India toward Indian tribal populations?
Answer: G.S. Ghurye and Verrier Elwin were two prominent anthropologists who had divergent views on the approach toward tribal populations.
G.S. Ghurye believed that the tribal population was backward and needed to be assimilated into mainstream society. He believed that the tribes needed to give up their customs, traditions, and way of life and adopt the ways of mainstream society. He advocated for a policy of assimilation, which he believed would help in the modernization and development of the tribal population.
On the other hand, Verrier Elwin believed that the tribal population had a unique culture and way of life that needed to be preserved. He believed that the tribes should be allowed to live their lives as they wanted and should not be forced to assimilate into mainstream society. He advocated for a policy of integration, which aimed at preserving the cultural identity of the tribes while also providing them with opportunities for development.
The Government of India has adopted a policy of tribal development that is based on the principles of integration and preservation of the cultural identity of the tribes. The government has implemented various schemes and programs aimed at providing the tribes with access to education, healthcare, and other basic amenities. The government has also recognized the rights of the tribes to their land and resources and has enacted laws to protect their rights.
However, despite the efforts of the government, the tribal population continues to face numerous challenges, including poverty, illiteracy, and discrimination. The government needs to take more proactive steps to address these issues and ensure that the tribal population is able to live a dignified life.
b. Discuss the issues and solutions related to the Scheduled Caste and the Scheduled Tribe populations in India.
Answer- The Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) are two groups that have historically faced social and economic discrimination in India. Despite various measures taken by the government to uplift these communities, they continue to face significant challenges.
Some of the issues faced by the SC and ST populations in India include:
Poverty: A large percentage of SC and ST populations live below the poverty line. This is due to various factors, including lack of education, lack of access to healthcare and employment opportunities, and discrimination in the labor market.
Education: Despite various measures taken by the government to improve access to education, the SC and ST populations continue to have lower levels of literacy and education. This is due to various factors, including poverty, lack of access to quality education, and discrimination in the education system.
Healthcare: The SC and ST populations have poorer health outcomes compared to the general population. This is due to various factors, including lack of access to healthcare facilities and services, and discrimination in the healthcare system.
Land Rights: The SC and ST populations often face challenges in asserting their land rights. This is due to various factors, including lack of awareness about their rights, encroachment by non-tribal communities, and lack of support from the government.
Some solutions to these issues include:
Education: The government should continue to focus on improving access to education for the SC and ST populations. This can be done by increasing the number of schools and colleges in areas with a high population of SC and ST communities, providing scholarships and financial support, and ensuring that the education system is free from discrimination.
Healthcare: The government should focus on improving access to healthcare facilities and services for the SC and ST populations. This can be done by increasing the number of healthcare facilities in areas with a high population of SC and ST communities, providing free or subsidized healthcare services, and ensuring that the healthcare system is free from discrimination.
Land Rights: The government should focus on ensuring that the SC and ST populations have access to their land rights. This can be done by providing legal and institutional support, increasing awareness about land rights, and taking action against encroachment.
Employment: The government should focus on creating more employment opportunities for the SC and ST populations. This can be done by providing skill development programs, promoting entrepreneurship, and ensuring that the labor market is free from discrimination.
Overall, it is important for the government to continue to focus on addressing the challenges faced by the SC and ST populations in India. This requires a multi-faceted approach that focuses on improving access to education, healthcare, land rights, and employment opportunities, while also addressing issues of discrimination and social exclusion
c. Explain the social and religious consequences of contact between tribal and non-tribal populations.
Answer- The contact between tribal and non-tribal populations can have significant social and religious consequences. Here are some of the ways in which these consequences can manifest:
Social Changes: Contact between tribal and non-tribal populations can lead to social changes among both groups. For instance, non-tribal populations may adopt some of the customs and practices of the tribal population, while tribal populations may adopt some of the customs and practices of the non-tribal population. This can lead to a loss of cultural identity among the tribal population, as well as a loss of cultural diversity among the non-tribal population.
Religious Conversions: Contact between tribal and non-tribal populations can also lead to religious conversions. Non-tribal populations may introduce their religion to the tribal population, which can lead to a loss of traditional religious beliefs among the tribal population. This can also lead to tensions between the two groups, as religious conversions may be seen as a threat to traditional religious practices and beliefs.
Conflicts: Contact between tribal and non-tribal populations can also lead to conflicts. This is often due to differences in social and cultural norms, as well as resource competition. For instance, non-tribal populations may encroach on tribal land, leading to conflicts over land use. These conflicts can sometimes escalate into violence, leading to loss of life and property.
Economic Changes: Contact between tribal and non-tribal populations can also lead to economic changes. Non-tribal populations may introduce new technologies and industries to tribal areas, which can lead to economic development. However, this can also lead to economic exploitation of the tribal population, as non-tribal populations may take advantage of the lack of knowledge and resources among the tribal population.
Overall, contact between tribal and non-tribal populations can have both positive and negative consequences. It is important for policymakers to be aware of these consequences and to take steps to mitigate any negative impacts, while also promoting cultural diversity and economic development. This requires a careful balance between respecting the cultural identity of the tribal population and promoting integration and economic development.
8. (a) Compare the nature of tribal movements between North-East and Central India. Briefly mention the current status of existing tribal movements in these areas.
Answer: The nature of tribal movements in Northeast and Central India differ significantly. Here is a brief comparison of the two:
North-East India: The tribal movements in North-East India are mostly driven by demands for autonomy, self-rule, and preservation of cultural identity. These movements are often based on ethnicity and language and are rooted in historical grievances related to land, resources, and political power. The North-East region is home to many ethnic and linguistic groups, each with its own distinct cultural identity, which has led to the emergence of many regional and sub-regional movements. Some of the notable tribal movements in North-East India include the Bodo movement in Assam, the Khasi and Jaintia movement in Meghalaya, and the Nagaland movement.
Central India: The tribal movements in Central India are mostly driven by demands for land rights, resource rights, and political representation. These movements are often based on caste and class and are rooted in historical grievances related to displacement, poverty, and exploitation. The Central India region is home to many tribal communities, each with its own distinct cultural identity, which has led to the emergence of many localized and regional movements. Some of the notable tribal movements in Central India include the Naxalite movement, the Gondwana movement, and the Jharkhand movement.
In terms of the current status of existing tribal movements in these areas:
North-East India: The tribal movements in North-East India have seen some success in recent years, with the government agreeing to some of the demands related to autonomy and cultural identity. For instance, the Bodo Accord of 2020 granted greater autonomy to the Bodo community in Assam, while the Naga peace talks are ongoing. However, there are still many unresolved issues related to land rights, resources, and political representation.
Central India: The tribal movements in Central India are still ongoing, with many groups continuing to demand land rights, resource rights, and political representation. The Naxalite movement, in particular, remains a major challenge for the government, with the movement having a significant presence in many tribal areas. The government has taken various measures to address the grievances of tribal communities, including the implementation of the Forest Rights Act and the Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act. However, these measures have not been fully effective in addressing the root causes of the movements.
b. Briefly describe the anthropological perspective on development. How have anthropologists contributed to India's rural development?
Answer- The anthropological perspective on development emphasizes the importance of understanding local cultures and social structures in the process of development. Anthropologists argue that development initiatives must take into account the social, economic, and cultural contexts in which they are implemented and that these initiatives should be participatory and collaborative, involving local communities in the planning and implementation process.
Anthropologists have made important contributions to India's rural development through their research and advocacy. Here are some of the ways in which anthropologists have contributed:
Participatory Development: Anthropologists have advocated for participatory approaches to development that involve local communities in the planning and implementation process. This approach recognizes the importance of local knowledge and cultural practices in the design of development initiatives.
Cultural Sensitivity: Anthropologists have emphasized the importance of cultural sensitivity in the design and implementation of development initiatives. They have highlighted the need to understand local cultural practices and beliefs and to work within these cultural frameworks to achieve development goals.
Sustainable Development: Anthropologists have promoted sustainable development initiatives that take into account the long-term impact of development on the environment and on local communities. They have highlighted the importance of preserving natural resources and traditional livelihoods in the process of development.
Policy Recommendations: Anthropologists have made policy recommendations based on their research on rural development in India. They have highlighted the need for land reform, access to credit, and social welfare programs to support rural communities.
Overall, anthropologists have made significant contributions to India's rural development by advocating for participatory, culturally sensitive, and sustainable approaches to development. Their research and policy recommendations have helped to shape development initiatives in India, with a greater focus on community participation and sustainable development
c. How can a balance be struck between livelihood concerns and environmental degradation in the context of shifting cultivation?
Answer: Shifting cultivation, also known as slash-and-burn agriculture, involves clearing a patch of forest, burning the vegetation to release nutrients, and cultivating crops for a few years before moving on to a new patch of land. While shifting cultivation can be a sustainable way of farming in some contexts, it can also lead to environmental degradation if not managed properly. Here are some ways in which a balance can be struck between livelihood concerns and environmental degradation in the context of shifting cultivation:
Promote Agroforestry: Agroforestry is a farming system that combines trees with crops or livestock. This approach can help to restore soil fertility, prevent erosion, and provide a sustainable source of income for farmers. By integrating trees into their farming systems, farmers can reduce the need for clearing new patches of forest for cultivation.
Improve Land Management: Improved land management practices, such as contour farming and terracing, can help to prevent soil erosion and improve soil fertility. This can help to maintain the productivity of shifting cultivation while minimizing the environmental impact.
Community-Based Forest Management: Community-based forest management involves local communities in the management of forests and other natural resources. This approach can help to ensure that forest resources are used in a sustainable manner, while also providing a source of income for local communities.
Alternatives to Shifting Cultivation: In some cases, it may be necessary to explore alternatives to shifting cultivation, such as agroforestry, horticulture, or livestock production. These alternative livelihoods can provide a more sustainable source of income for farmers, while also reducing the environmental impact of shifting cultivation.
In summary, striking a balance between livelihood concerns and environmental degradation in the context of shifting cultivation requires a multi-faceted approach that involves promoting agroforestry, improving land management practices, community-based forest management, and exploring alternatives to shifting cultivation. By adopting these approaches, it may be possible to maintain the productivity of shifting cultivation while minimizing its environmental impact.