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# WBCS 2023 SOLUTION WITH EXPLANATION 51 TO 100 পরীক্ষার সম্পূর্ণ সমাধান

wbcs 2023 solution

51. If the seventh day of a month is three days earlier than Friday, what day will it be on the

nineteenth day of the month?

(A ) Saturday

(B) Monday

(C) Sunday

(D) Tuesday

To solve this problem, let's break it down step-by-step:

1. Seventh day = Three days earlier than Friday: This means if Friday is the 10th day, then the seventh day would be 10 - 3 = 7th day.

2. Nineteenth day: We need to find the day of the month on the 19th day.

Now, knowing that the 7th day is the same as the 10th day and following a regular weekly pattern:

• 10th day = Friday

• 11th day = Saturday

• 12th day = Sunday

• 13th day = Monday

• 14th day = Tuesday

• 15th day = Wednesday

• 16th day = Thursday

• 17th day = Friday

• 18th day = Saturday

• 19th day = Sunday

Therefore, the seventh day of the month will be the same as the nineteenth day of the month, which is (C) Sunday.

52.Members of the Constituent Assembly were

(A) elected by Provincial Assemblies.

(B) elected directly by people.

(C) nominated by British Government.

(D) represented only by the Princely States.

Out of the provided options, the most accurate description of how members of the Constituent Assembly were chosen is:

(A) elected by Provincial Assemblies

Here's why:

• Indirect elections: While the members of the Constituent Assembly weren't directly elected by the people, they were chosen through indirect elections by the members of the Provincial Assemblies.

• Representation: This system aimed to ensure some degree of democratic representation within the Assembly, despite not being full universal suffrage.

• Other options: The other options are inaccurate:

• (B) elected directly by people: This wasn't the case for the Constituent Assembly.

• (C) nominated by British Government: While some members from Princely States were nominated, the majority were elected.

• (D) represented only by the Princely States: This is misleading as representatives from British provinces also formed a significant portion of the Assembly.

Therefore, remember that members of the Constituent Assembly were primarily chosen through indirect elections by the members of the Provincial Assemblies, making option (A) the most accurate representation of their selection process.

53. The perimeter of a triangle whose sides are in the ratio 1/20: 1/15:1/12 is 30 cms. The length of the biggest side is

(A) 7.1/2cms

(B) 10 cms

(C) 12. 1/2 cms

(D) 7 cms

1. Define the ratio of the sides: We're given that the sides of the triangle are in the ratio 1:20:15:12. Let's call the common factor for this ratio "x." So, the actual side lengths are:

• First side = 1x cm

• Second side = 20x cm

• Third side = 15x cm

1. Calculate the total perimeter: We're given that the perimeter of the triangle is 30 cm. Therefore: Perimeter = First side + Second side + Third side 30 cm = 1x cm + 20x cm + 15x cm 30 cm = 36x cm

2. Find the common factor (x): To find the actual lengths of the sides, we need to solve for x: x = 30 cm / 36 x = 5/6 cm

3. Calculate the length of the biggest side: Now that we know x, we can find the length of the biggest side, which is the second side: Second side = 20x cm Second side = 20 * 5/6 cm Second side = 50/3 cm Second side ≈ 16.67 cm

Therefore, the length of the biggest side is approximately 16.67 cm. None of the provided options directly match this answer, but it's closest to option (A) 7.1/2 cms. However, the answer should ideally reflect the calculated value with more decimal places for accuracy.

So, remember that the biggest side's length is approximately 16.67 cms, or slightly higher than option (A) but not exactly matching any of the options provided.

54. Where was the capital of Kanishka?

(A) Purushpur

(B) Jalandhar

(C) Kashmir

(D) Pataliputra

(A) Purushpur

Here's why:

• Purushpur, also known as Peshawar, was the main capital of Kanishka's vast empire, which stretched from Central Asia to the Gangetic plain.

• He also had another significant capital at Mathura.

• While Jalandhar, Kashmir, and Pataliputra were important cities within his empire, they weren't his primary capitals.

Therefore, remember that Purushpur, present-day Peshawar, was the main capital of Kanishka during his reign.

55. The term 'Political Justice" is mentioned in the Indian Constitution under which of these.

(A) Only under the Preamble to the Constitution of India

(B) Under both Preamble and Directive Principles

(C) Under Fundamental Rights andDirective Principles

(D) Under Preamble of the Constitutionand Fundamental Rights

Out of the provided options, the term "Political Justice" is mentioned in the Indian Constitution under:

(B) Under both Preamble and Directive Principles

Here's why:

• Preamble: The Preamble to the Indian Constitution does mention the goal of securing "social, economic and political justice." This statement sets the overall tone and vision for the Constitution.

• Directive Principles: Additionally, Article 38 of the Constitution, under the Directive Principles of State Policy, specifically highlights the state's responsibility to strive to promote "a social order which ensures political justice."

Therefore, the term "Political Justice" finds prominence and emphasis in both the Preamble and the Directive Principles, making option (B) the most accurate answer.

It's important to note that while Fundamental Rights do play a crucial role in ensuring justice, they primarily focus on individual rights and freedoms. The specific term "Political Justice" goes beyond individual rights and emphasizes the overall fairness and justice within the political system itself.

So, remember that "Political Justice" is enshrined in both the aspirational ideals of the Preamble and the directive goals of the Directive Principles in the Indian Constitution.

56. Which hormone is responsible for breaking the dormancy of a seed?

(A) Auxin

(B) Dormin

(C) Cytokinin

(D) Gibberellin

The hormone responsible for breaking the dormancy of a seed is:

(D) Gibberellin

While other hormones have their roles in plant growth and development, gibberellin specifically plays a key role in seed germination by:

• Stimulating the breakdown of stored reserves (starch and protein) in the seed, providing energy for the germinating embryo.

• Promoting cell elongation and division in the radicle (primary root) and shoot, leading to root and shoot growth.

• Interacting with other hormones like auxin and cytokinin to regulate the overall germination process.

Therefore, among the provided options, gibberellin stands out as the primary hormone responsible for breaking seed dormancy and initiating germination.

Here's a brief explanation of the other options:

• (A) Auxin: Though important for plant growth, auxin primarily promotes cell elongation and root formation. While it can interact with gibberellin in germination, it doesn't directly break dormancy.

• (B) Dormin: As the name suggests, this hormone actually promotes seed dormancy by inhibiting germination under unfavorable conditions.

• (C) Cytokinin: Cytokinin plays a role in cell division and shoot growth, but it isn't the main driver of seed dormancy breaking.

Remember, gibberellin is the key hormone to unlock the hidden potential within a seed, propelling it towards germination and new life.

57. Under the rule of which emperor Nalanda University was founded?

(A) Samudragupta

(B) Chandragupta II

(C) Skandagupta

(D) Kumaragupta 1

The emperor under whose rule Nalanda University was founded is:

(D) Kumaragupta I

While other Gupta emperors were significant figures in Indian history, Kumaragupta I is credited with the establishment of Nalanda around 427 AD. Several pieces of evidence support this connection:

• Clay seals: Archaeological excavations at Nalanda have unearthed clay seals bearing the inscription "Śakrāditya," one of Kumaragupta I's epithets.

• Chinese pilgrim accounts: Xuanzang, a Chinese pilgrim who visited Nalanda in the 7th century, mentions the university's founding during the reign of Shakraditya.

• Numismatic evidence: Coins unearthed at the site also corroborate the link between Kumaragupta I and the university's establishment.

Therefore, based on historical evidence and literary references, Kumaragupta I stands out as the founder of the renowned Nalanda University.

Please remember that although other emperors like Samudragupta and Chandragupta II contributed significantly to the Gupta dynasty's prosperity, Kumaragupta I's specific association with Nalanda's founding makes him the most accurate answer in this context.

58. Which neighboring country of India has passed its first Citizenship Amendment Bill?

(B) Myanmar

(C) Nepal

(D) Srilanka

Explanation: Parliament of Nepal passed the first ever “Citizenship Amendment Bill” on July 13, 2022, which was under discussion for more than two years as it could not forge a consensus among political parties.

59. The two main industries in Haldia Industrial Region-

(A) Production of batteries and ship repairing

(B) Petroleum refinery and production of batteries

(C) Petroleum refinery and ship repairing

(D) Petroleum refinery and Chemical Fertilizers production

While all the mentioned industries exist in the Haldia Industrial Region, the two main industries are:

(D) Petroleum refinery and Chemical Fertilizers production

Here's why:

• Prominence: Both petroleum refineries and chemical fertilizer production plants hold significant presence within the region, with major companies like Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. and Tata Chemicals setting up large facilities there.

• Economic impact: These industries contribute heavily to the local economy, offering employment opportunities and generating revenue for the region.

• Infrastructure: The Haldia Industrial Region boasts infrastructure specifically tailored for these industries, such as pipelines, dedicated ports, and chemical storage facilities.

While battery production and ship repairing are present, they play a smaller role compared to petroleum refining and fertilizer production in terms of scale, economic impact, and infrastructure dedicated to them.

Therefore, remember that petroleum refinery and chemical fertilizer production are the two main industries driving the Haldia Industrial Region's economic engine.

60. Between whom was the First Battle of Panipat fought in 1526?

(A) Babur and Ibrahim Lodi

(B) Babur and Rana Sanga

(C) Babur and Sher Khan

(D) Akbar and Himu

(A) Babur and Ibrahim Lodi

Here's why:

• Babur: Founder of the Mughal Empire, he led his Timurid forces from Central Asia into India.

• Ibrahim Lodi: The last Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate, he commanded a vast but largely outdated army.

• Other options: While Rana Sanga, Sher Khan, and Himu were significant figures in Indian history, none of them were involved in the First Battle of Panipat. Rana Sanga fought later against Babur at the Battle of Khanua in 1527, Sher Khan emerged as a major contender later in the Mughal era, and Himu clashed with Akbar at the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556.

Therefore, remembering the clash between Babur and Ibrahim Lodi as the defining characteristic of the First Battle of Panipat is crucial for historical accuracy.

61. Where was the first Buddhist Council held?

(A) Vaisali

(B) Pataliputra

(C) Rajagriha

(D) Malava

The first Buddhist council was held in (C) Rajagriha, specifically, in the Sattapanni caves near the city. This event took place shortly after the Buddha's death, around 483 BCE.

Here's why the other options are not correct:

• (A) Vaisali: The second Buddhist council was held in Vaisali, around 377 BCE.

• (B) Pataliputra: The third Buddhist council was held in Pataliputra, around 250 BCE.

• (D) Malava: Malava was not a significant center for early Buddhism and is not associated with any of the Buddhist councils.

Therefore, remembering that the first Buddhist council was held in Rajagriha, in the Sattapanni caves, will add to your knowledge of Buddhist history.

62. In the world in Postal Services India ranks

(A) Third

(B) Second

(C) First

(D) Fourth

While India Post boasts a vast network and plays a significant role in postal services, its global ranking can vary depending on the specific criteria and metrics used for evaluation. Based on recent data and assessments, India's current rank in postal services could fall within the range of:

• (C) First: Some reports, like Universal Postal Union’s 2022 Integrated Index for Postal Development, place India at the top, highlighting its extensive network, affordability, and service reach.

• (B) Second: Other assessments, considering factors like efficiency, technological adoption, and delivery speed, might rank India slightly lower, potentially in second place.

• (D) Fourth: Studies emphasizing aspects like postal quality, reliability, and customer satisfaction might position India further down the rankings, around fourth or fifth place.

Therefore, it's crucial to understand that India's global ranking in postal services can be dynamic and dependent on the specific parameters considered. Instead of focusing on a single position, it's helpful to acknowledge its strengths, like its widespread network and affordability, while also recognizing areas for improvement in terms of efficiency and modernization.

63. Meaning of Man - Land ratio is

(A) the ratio between the total population and the actual utilization of land in a country.

(B) the ratio between total land and total population of a country.

(C) the ratio between the total plain land and mature population of a country.

(D) the ratio between total agricultural land and total male population.

The meaning of "Man-Land Ratio" refers to the relationship between the total population of a region and the total available land in that region. Therefore, the most accurate option is:

(B) the ratio between total land and total population of a country.

Here's why the other options are inaccurate:

• (A): While land utilization is relevant to population density, the Man-Land Ratio focuses on the overall availability of land, not just utilized land.

• (C): The term doesn't differentiate between plain land and other types of land. It considers all available land within the region.

• (D): The Man-Land Ratio considers the entire population, not just the male population or specifically agricultural land.

Therefore, remember that the Man-Land Ratio is a simple, general indicator of the population density within a region, indicating how many people inhabit a given geographical area

64. Which of the following is not a fundamental duty under the Indian Constitution?

(A) To protect monument of national importance

(B) To develop scientifle temper

(C) To uphold unity and integrity of the nation

(D) None of the above

(D) None of the above

All three highlighted duties in options (A), (B), and (C) are valid fundamental duties. There was no option among the provided choices that wasn't a fundamental duty.

65. If f (x) = 5’ + 1/5’+ 2, then the value of f(-x) is

(A) f(x)

(B)-f(x)

(-) (0)

(D)-(1)

Here's the breakdown:

1. Defining the notation:

• 5' denotes the fifth power of 5, so 5' = 5^5 = 3125.

2. Calculating f(x):

• f(x) = 5^5 + 1/5^5 + 2

• f(x) = 3125 + 1/3125 + 2

• f(x) ≈ 3127.00032

3. Calculating f(-x):

• f(-x) substitutes -x wherever x appears in the expression f(x).

• Since 5' is a constant term, it remains the same: f(-x) = 5^5 + 1/5^5 + 2.

• Therefore, f(-x) also equals 3127.00032.

4. Comparing f(x) and f(-x):

• Since f(x) and f(-x) have the same value (≈ 3127.00032), the answer is:

(A) f(x)

Therefore, if f(x) = 5' + 1/5' + 2, then the value of f(-x) is also equal to f(x).

66. DadabhaiNaoroji was elected to the British House of Commons as a member of the party.

(A) Conservative

(B) Liberal

(C) Labour

(D) Labour-Liberal combine

(B) Liberal

DadabhaiNaoroji was indeed elected to the British House of Commons as a member of the Liberal Party in 1892. He was the first British Indian MP and a prominent figure in the Indian independence movement.

My previous answer only addressed two options and didn't provide a complete explanation for the other two. I am still under development and learning to improve the comprehensiveness of my responses. Thank you for your patience and understanding.

67. Which country has awarded Ardeshir B.K. Dubash, the 'Order of Merit in the Diplomatic Services'?

(B) France

(C) Japan

(D) Peru

Peru Former Honorary Consul of Peru in Mumbai Ardeshir BK Dubash received the Order of Merit in the Diplomatic Service of Peru Jos Gregorio Paz Soldn It is the highest distinction conferred by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Peru He was designated as Honorary Consul of Peru in the year 1973 and his career as Honorary Consul spanned for almost half a century

68. If number of molecules present in 9g of water is n, then number of molecules present in 44 g of   carbon dioxide is

(A) π

(В) 2л

(C) n/2

(D) 3n

To solve this question, we need to consider the concept of Avogadro's number. Avogadro's number, denoted by N_A, is approximately 6.022 × 10^23, and it represents the number of atoms or molecules in one mole of a substance.

Here's how we can solve the problem:

1. Find the number of moles in 9 grams of water:

• First, find the molar mass of water (the mass of one mole of water). H2O has a molar mass of 2(1) + 16 = 18 grams/mol.

• Now, divide the given mass of water (9 grams) by the molar mass: 9 grams / 18 grams/mol = 0.5 moles of water.

1. Find the number of molecules in 0.5 moles of water:

• Multiply the number of moles by Avogadro's number: 0.5 moles * 6.022 × 10^23 molecules/mol = 3.011 × 10^23 molecules.

1. Find the number of moles in 44 grams of carbon dioxide:

• Similar to step 1, find the molar mass of CO2 (12 + 2*16 = 44 grams/mol).

• Now, divide the given mass of CO2 (44 grams) by the molar mass: 44 grams / 44 grams/mol = 1 mole of CO2.

1. Find the number of molecules in 1 mole of carbon dioxide:

• Multiply the number of moles by Avogadro's number: 1 mole * 6.022 × 10^23 molecules/mol = 6.022 × 10^23 molecules.

1. Compare the number of molecules in water and carbon dioxide:

• We found that 9 grams of water contain 3.011 × 10^23 molecules and 44 grams of CO2 contain 6.022 × 10^23 molecules.

Therefore, the number of molecules in 44 grams of carbon dioxide is twice the number of molecules in 9 grams of water, i.e., 2n.

So, the answer is (D) 3n.

69. In which substage of interphase is DNA doubled?

(A) G_1

(B) S

(C) G_2

(D) G

(B) S is the substage of interphase during which DNA is doubled.

Here's why:

• Interphase: This is the stage between cell divisions where the cell grows and prepares for the next division. It consists of three substages: G1, S, and G2.

• G1 (Gap 1): This is the first growth phase where the cell synthesizes RNA and proteins needed for other cellular processes. DNA replication doesn't occur here.

• S (Synthesis): This is the DNA synthesis phase where the cell replicates its DNA to create two identical copies of each chromosome. This duplication prepares the cell for mitosis or meiosis.

• G2 (Gap 2): This is the second growth phase where the cell continues to grow and prepares for cell division. It involves protein synthesis and cell organelle duplication, but DNA replication doesn't take place again.

Therefore, remembering that the S phase of interphase is specifically dedicated to DNA replication is crucial for understanding cellular processes and cell division.

70. Who among the following has been given the power by the Indian Constitution to 'impose reasonable restrictions' on the fundamental rights?

(A) President

(B) Parliament

(C) Supreme Court

(D) Both (B) and (C)

The answer to this question is (D) Both (B) and (C). Both the Parliament and the Supreme Court have the power to impose reasonable restrictions on fundamental rights in the Indian Constitution.

Here's why:

• Parliament: Through legislative power, the Parliament can enact laws that can restrict fundamental rights in certain circumstances. These restrictions must be "reasonable" and justified for certain public purposes such as national security, public order, morality, etc. This power is granted by Article 19 of the Constitution.

• Supreme Court: Through judicial review, the Supreme Court can examine the constitutionality of laws that impose restrictions on fundamental rights. If the Court finds that the restrictions are not "reasonable" or are not justified for a valid public purpose, it can strike down the law or parts of it. This power is derived from the doctrine of basic structure and judicial review established by the Court.

Therefore, both the Parliament and the Supreme Court play a crucial role in balancing the protection of fundamental rights with the needs of society as a whole. While Parliament can enact laws with restrictions, the Supreme Court acts as a safeguard to ensure that these restrictions remain within reasonable bounds and don't unduly infringe upon individual liberties.

It's important to remember that even with the power to impose restrictions, fundamental rights are considered essential to a democratic society and their protection is paramount. These restrictions should be exercised meticulously and only for compelling reasons.

71. Who observed: "The Congress is in reality a civil war without arms"?

(A) Lord Dufferin

(B) M. A. Jinnah

(D) Lord Curzon

(A) Lord Dufferin

Here's why:

• Lord Dufferin: Frederick Temple Hamilton Temple, Marquess of Dufferin and Ava, served as the Viceroy of India from 1884 to 1893. He wrote about the Indian National Congress in this way, expressing his view that the organization, despite advocating for peaceful means, represented a significant challenge to British colonial rule.

• Other options: While the other figures played significant roles in Indian history, their views and statements don't align with the specific quote attributed in this question:

• M. A. Jinnah: He was a prominent leader in the Muslim League and later became the founder of Pakistan. While he opposed the Indian National Congress on multiple occasions, his statements often focused on the partition of India and the rights of Muslims.

• Sir Syed Ahmad Khan: He was a reformer and educationalist who championed the modernization of Muslim society in India. His views on the Congress primarily emphasized the need for Muslims to participate in politics within the framework of British rule.

• Lord Curzon: He served as the Viceroy of India from 1899 to 1905. His policies were often regarded as more conservative and aimed at solidifying British control, making his viewpoint less likely to resonate with the quoted statement.

Therefore, remembering that Lord Dufferin made the observation about the Congress as a "civil war without arms" adds context to his perception of the political landscape in India during his tenure as Viceroy.

72. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion- process was used for energy production in India in

(A) Kolkata

(B) Haldia

While India is exploring Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology for potential future energy production, it hasn't implemented it commercially yet. Therefore, none of the provided locations, (A) Kolkata, (B) Haldia, (C) Madras/Chennai, or (D) Paradwip, have an operational OTEC plant currently.

However, India is taking promising steps towards OTEC research and development. Here's some relevant information:

• Lakshadweep OTEC pilot project: The National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) is currently establishing a 65 kW OTEC desalination plant at Kavaratti island in Lakshadweep. This project, expected to be operational by 2024, aims to demonstrate the feasibility of OTEC technology for power generation and desalination in India.

• Other initiatives: NIOT is also engaged in other research and development activities related to OTEC, including resource assessment, technology advancements, and developing cost-effective OTEC designs.

So, while OTEC hasn't been used for active energy production in India yet, the future holds promise with ongoing research and development efforts focused on harnessing this sustainable energy source.

Remember, staying updated on emerging technologies like OTEC can help you stay informed about India's progress in diversifying its energy mix and exploring green energy solutions.

73. The major percentage of Central Government subsidy in 2023-24 is on

(A) Food

(B) Interest

(C) Fertilizer

(D) Petroleum

(A) Food

Here's why:

• Based on the Union Budget 2023-24, the estimated expenditure on food subsidy is the highest, reaching Rs. 1.97 lakh crore, approximately 35% of the total major subsidies allocated for the fiscal year.

• The expenditure on interest payments, while significant, comes in second place, estimated at Rs. 6.71 lakh crore. However, it's important to note that interest payments aren't technically considered "subsidies" in the usual sense, as they represent the cost of servicing government debt.

• The budget allocated for fertilizer subsidies is Rs. 1.75 lakh crore, followed by petroleum subsidies at Rs. 54,200 crore. While substantial, they remain lower than the food subsidy amount.

Therefore, remembering that food subsidy accounts for the largest portion of the central government subsidy budget in 2023-24 provides valuable insight into the government's spending priorities and social policies.

74. In India the state with highest yield of Pulse (Dal) per hectare

(B) Rajasthan

(C) Gujarat

Overall pulse yield: As of 2023, Madhya Pradesh generally boasts the highest average yield per hectare for total pulses in India. Their yield hovers around 853 kg/ha, compared to other states like Rajasthan (703 kg/ha), Uttar Pradesh (715 kg/ha), and Gujarat (501 kg/ha).

75. In India the Food Processing Industry is most developed in

(A) West Bengal

(B) Gujarat

(D) Haryana

Here's why:

• Infrastructure: Andhra Pradesh boasts several dedicated food parks, cold storage facilities, processing units, and research institutions, providing a strong foundation for food processing enterprises.

• Diversity: The state covers a wide range of food products, including fruits, vegetables, dairy, poultry, and seafood, fostering a diverse and vibrant food processing ecosystem.

• Policy initiatives: Andhra Pradesh has implemented pro-active policies and incentives to attract investments in the food processing sector, contributing to its growth and development.

However, it's important to acknowledge the contributions of other states you mentioned:

• West Bengal: Renowned for its seafood processing industry, West Bengal holds a significant position in specific segments.

• Gujarat: With its focus on dairy and oilseed processing, Gujarat stands out in its own specific areas.

• Haryana: The state excels in processing fruits and vegetables, particularly with its proximity to Delhi and other major consumption centers.

Therefore, while Andhra Pradesh currently leads the way in overall development and diversity, each state offers unique strengths and opportunities within the burgeoning Indian food processing industry.

76. With which country has India recently signed the Economic Cooperation and Trade

Agreement (ECTA)?

(A) England

(B) USA

(C) Australia

(D) France

(C) Australia

The India-Australia ECTA was signed in April 2022 and came into effect in December 2022. The agreement aims to boost trade and investment between the two countries by reducing tariffs on various goods and services.

Here's why the other options are not correct:

• (A) England: India and England do not have an ECTA. They are both part of the Commonwealth of Nations, but this is not a trade agreement.

• (B) USA: While India and the United States have been discussing a potential trade agreement, they have not yet signed one.

• (D) France: India and France have a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) in goods, but not an ECTA. The FTA only covers goods, not services.

Therefore, remembering that India's recent ECTA is with Australia adds to your knowledge of the country's trade relations with other nations.

77. The word, 'Biodiversity' was coined by

(A) Ernst Mayr

(B) W.G. Rosen

(C) Tansley

(D) Odum

The word "Biodiversity" was coined by (B) W.G. Rosen.

While all the mentioned individuals are prominent figures in various fields related to ecology and environmental science, the credit for coining the term "Biodiversity" goes to Walter G. Rosen. He introduced the term in the late 1980s as a contraction of "biological diversity" to emphasize the variety and variability of life on Earth. The term quickly gained popularity and became widely used in scientific discourse and environmental conservation efforts.

78. The Nehru Committee Report got a decent burial at the hands of the Congress at the …………………. Session of the INC.

(A) Calcutta

(C) Lahore

(D) Bombay

The Nehru Committee Report met its demise at the hands of the Congress at the (B) Madras Session of the INC. This specific session, held in December 1927, saw the Congress ultimately rejecting the key proposals outlined in the Committee's report..

79. The first cotton textile mill, in India was set up in

(A) Kolkata Ghusuri

(B) Kolkata-Sinthimore

(C) Nagpur

(D) Thane

While some sources might mention other locations, the most widely accepted answer to the question of the first cotton textile mill in India is:

(A) Kolkata Ghusuri

Here's why:

• Historical evidence: The mill, established in 1818 by the British East India Company, was known as the Fort Gloster Mills and located in Ghusuri, near Kolkata. While it wasn't commercially successful and eventually shut down, its historical significance as the first such mill in India cannot be disputed.

• Recognition: Several historical accounts and academic references acknowledge the Fort Gloster Mills in Ghusuri as the pioneering cotton textile mill in India.

It's important to note that other cotton mills like the Bombay Spinning and Weaving Company (established in 1854) played crucial roles in the development of the Indian textile industry. However, in terms of historical precedence and being the first established mill, Kolkata Ghusuri still holds the title.

Therefore, remembering the Fort Gloster Mills in Kolkata Ghusuri as the first cotton textile mill in India adds to your knowledge of Indian industrial history and its early steps towards textile production.

80. Which of the following is not regarded as public expenditure in India?

(A) Subsidy given to local city bus service

(B) Defense expenditure

(C) Interest payment on national debt

(D) Investment spending by public companies

(D) Investment spending by public companies

Here's why:

• Public expenditure: This typically refers to the spending of the government and its various agencies on goods and services to fulfill public needs and welfare. It includes expenses like subsidies, defense, healthcare, education, infrastructure, and more.

• Investment spending by public companies: While public companies might be owned by the government or have a significant government stake, their investment decisions aren't directly classified as public expenditure. Their investments are primarily driven by commercial considerations and their own profitability goals.

The other options are all considered part of public expenditure in India:

• (A) Subsidy given to local city bus service: This represents a direct financial support by the government to promote public transportation and make it more accessible.

• (B) Defense expenditure: This is the government's spending on maintaining and strengthening the armed forces, ensuring national security.

• (C) Interest payment on national debt: This is the cost of servicing the debt incurred by the government through borrowing, a legitimate expense of the public finances.

Therefore, it's crucial to distinguish between spending directly made by the government for public welfare and the actions of individual public companies, even if they're government-owned, to accurately understand the scope of public expenditure in India.

81. Who wrote Kumarasambhavam'?

(A) Vishnusharma

(B) Dandin

(C) Kalidasa

(D) Somedeb

Kumarasambhavam is an epic poem by Kalidasa, one of the greatest poets of classical Sanskrit literature. It tells the story of the birth of Kumara (Kartikeya), the son of Shiva and Parvati. The poem is known for its lyrical beauty, vivid imagery, and complex symbolism.

The other options are incorrect:

• (A) Vishnusharma: Vishnusharma is the author of the Manusmriti, a Hindu legal text.

• (B) Dandin: Dandin is the author of the Dasakumaracarita, a prose romance.

• (D) Somedeb: Somedeb is a Bengali poet who lived in the 19th century.

82) Name the sultan who first organised expeditions to conquer the Deccan

(A) AlauddinKhalji

(B) Balban

(C) Firuz-Tughluq

(D) Md. Bin-Tughlak

Out of the provided options, the Sultan who first organized expeditions to conquer the Deccan was:

A) AlauddinKhalji

Here's why the other options are not correct:

• (B) Balban: While Balban was a powerful Sultan known for consolidating the Delhi Sultanate, he primarily focused on consolidating territories within his existing domain and didn't initiate major Deccan campaigns.

• (C) Firuz-Tughluq: FiruzTughluq succeeded AlauddinKhalji and focused on internal administration and consolidation rather than expansionary campaigns.

• (D) Md. Bin-Tughlak: Although Mohammad Bin Tughluq attempted Deccan conquests, he wasn't the first. AlauddinKhalji had already launched and achieved significant success in Deccan expeditions before Md. Bin-Tughlak's reign.

Therefore, remembering that AlauddinKhalji was the pioneer of Deccan conquests adds to your understanding of his expansionary strategies and the historical dynamics of the Delhi Sultanate during his reign.

83. Five boys A, B, C, D and E play a game of cards. Each boy has 10 cards. E borre vs 3 cards from A and give away 5 to C who in turn gives 4 to B. while B passes 2 to D. How many cards does D have?

(A) 9

(B) 10

(C) 11

(D) 12

Here's how to calculate the number of cards D has:

1. Initial Cards: Each boy starts with 10 cards, so D initially has 10 cards.

2. Card Transfers:

• A loses 3 cards to E, reducing his cards to 10 - 3 = 7.

• E then gives 5 cards to C, increasing C's cards to 10 + 5 = 15.

• C gives 4 cards to B, decreasing his cards to 15 - 4 = 11.

• B gives 2 cards to D, increasing D's cards to 10 + 2 = 12.

Therefore, D has 12 cards after the series of card transfers.

So the answer is: (D) 12

84. Who introduced 'Din-i-Ilahi'?

(A) Babur

(B) Akbar

(C) Jahangir

(D) Shahjahan

(B) Akbar

Here's why the other options are incorrect:

• (A) Babur: Founded the Mughal dynasty but didn't introduce Din-i-Ilahi.

• (C) Jahangir: Akbar's son and successor, but didn't actively promote Din-i-Ilahi.

• (D) Shahjahan: Grandson of Akbar and further abandoned the practice of Din-i-Ilahi.

Therefore, remembering that Akbar introduced Din-i-Ilahi adds to your knowledge of his reign and various social and religious initiatives during the Mughal era.

85. What happens when the potassium lodide solution is added to a solution of lead nitrate?

(A) White precipitation of lead iodide is formed.

(B) Yellow precipitation of lead iodide is formed.

(C) Red precipitation of lead iodide is formed.

(D) Black precipitation of lead iodide is formed.

When potassium iodide solution (KI) is added to a solution of lead nitrate (Pb(NO3)2), a yellow precipitation of lead iodide (PbI2) is formed. This reaction occurs due to a double displacement reaction, where the ions exchange partners:

2KI(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) → PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq)

(B) Yellow precipitation of lead iodide is formed.

It's important to remember that lead iodide has a characteristic yellow color, not white, red, or black.

86. NITI Aayog has released the "North-East Region District SDG Index" with the support from

(A) UNDP(United Nations Development Programme)

(B) World Bank

(C) Asian Development Bank

(D) IMF

The answer is (A) UNDP(United Nations Development Programme).

The North-East Region District SDG Index was released by NITI Aayog with the technical support from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). This information is explicitly mentioned in various online sources, including the official press release by PIB (Press Information Bureau) and NITI Aayog's website.

The other options are incorrect:

• World Bank, Asian Development Bank, and IMF were not involved in the development of the North-East Region District SDG Index.

87. Pitt Island, where recently many pilot whales died, is located in which country?

(A) Indonesia

(B) New Zealand

(C) Japan

(D) USA