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Public Administration Civil Services Paper 2 Section- B, Questions 5,6_ Solutions



5. (a) Examine the lateral entry recruitment in government in the context of Part XIV of the Indian Constitution.


Answer: Article 309 of Part XIV of the Indian Constitution grants the power to the President or Governor of a state to regulate the recruitment and conditions of service for all public servants under the respective governments. Lateral entry recruitment in government refers to the practice of recruiting professionals from private or non-governmental sectors to fill senior-level positions in the government.


While the Indian Constitution does not explicitly mention lateral entry recruitment, it does provide for the appointment of non-civil servants to certain positions in the government. For example, Article 72 empowers the President to grant pardons and reprieves to convicted individuals, including those who are not public servants. Similarly, Article 124 of the Constitution allows for the appointment of judges to the Supreme Court who is not already serving as judges in a high court.


In recent years, the Indian government has increasingly utilized lateral entry recruitment to fill senior-level positions in various ministries and departments. This practice has been criticized by some as being potentially detrimental to the neutrality and impartiality of the civil service, as lateral entrants may have pre-existing biases or interests that could influence their decision-making.


However, supporters of lateral entry recruitment argue that it can bring fresh perspectives and new ideas to the government, as well as help fill skill gaps in the civil service. Additionally, the selection process for lateral entrants is typically rigorous and includes measures to ensure that candidates are qualified and suitable for the positions they are applying for.


Overall, lateral entry recruitment in government is not explicitly addressed in Part XIV of the Indian Constitution but is within the purview of the power granted to the President and Governors to regulate the recruitment and conditions of service for public servants. The merits and drawbacks of this practice are still a matter of debate and continue to be evaluated by policymakers and experts.


5. (b) Examine the role of the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) in protecting the interests of the investors in securities.


Answer: The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is the regulatory body responsible for overseeing the securities market in India. SEBI's primary objective is to protect the interests of investors in securities and promote the development of the securities market through appropriate regulations.


SEBI's role in protecting the interests of investors can be understood in the following ways:


Investor Protection: SEBI's primary responsibility is to protect the interests of investors in the securities market. It ensures that investors are provided with accurate and adequate information about companies and their securities, so they can make informed decisions. SEBI also regulates insider trading, fraud, and other market malpractices that can harm investors.


Regulation of Market Participants: SEBI regulates various market participants, such as stockbrokers, sub-brokers, portfolio managers, and investment advisors. It ensures that these participants comply with the regulations and safeguard the interests of investors.


Monitoring and Enforcement: SEBI monitors the securities market for any illegal activities and enforces regulatory provisions to prevent malpractices. It has the power to investigate and penalize any market participant who violates regulations.


Disclosure Requirements: SEBI mandates companies to disclose information to investors that is material and necessary for decision-making. This ensures that investors have access to all the relevant information before investing in a company's securities.


Investor Education and Awareness: SEBI conducts investor education programs to educate investors on market regulations and practices. It also promotes awareness of the risks and benefits of investing in securities to help investors make informed decisions.


In conclusion, SEBI plays a crucial role in protecting the interests of investors in securities. Its regulations and enforcement actions ensure that market participants operate in a fair and transparent manner and that investors have access to accurate and adequate information to make informed decisions. Its initiatives for investor education and awareness also contribute to investor protection.


5. (c) Citizens charters in India have not succeeded in their objectives of making the administrative system citizen-centric. Do you agree? Give reasons.


Answer: Citizens' Charters were introduced in India with the aim of making the administrative system more citizen-centric and accountable. However, it can be argued that these charters have not been entirely successful in achieving their objectives.


One of the main reasons for this is the lack of awareness and accessibility of these charters among citizens. Despite being widely publicized and made available on government websites, a significant proportion of the population remains unaware of their existence or their purpose. This lack of awareness has also been compounded by the fact that the charters are often written in technical language that is difficult for the average citizen to understand.


Another reason is the lack of effective monitoring and enforcement mechanisms to ensure that government departments adhere to the commitments made in the charters. In many cases, there have been no consequences for departments that fail to meet the standards set out in the charters, leading to a lack of accountability and commitment to the principles of citizen-centric governance.


Additionally, the Citizens' Charter has often been seen as a tokenistic gesture rather than a genuine commitment to improving the delivery of services to citizens. The bureaucratic mindset, the resistance to change, and the lack of political will to implement meaningful reforms in the administrative system have all contributed to the failure of Citizens' Charters in achieving their objectives.


In conclusion, while the concept of Citizens' Charters in India is a step in the right direction towards making the administrative system more accountable and citizen-centric, the lack of awareness, monitoring, enforcement mechanisms, and political will to implement meaningful reforms has hindered their success.


5. (d) Following the onset of globalization, the traditional bureaucratic model appears to have lost its significance. Comment.


Answer: Globalization has had a significant impact on the traditional bureaucratic model of organizations. In the past, bureaucratic structures were considered the most effective way of organizing large organizations. However, with the advent of globalization, the traditional bureaucratic model has lost much of its significance.


One reason for this is that globalization has increased the pace of change in the business environment, making it difficult for traditional bureaucratic structures to adapt quickly. Bureaucratic organizations are often slow-moving and hierarchical, with decision-making authority concentrated at the top of the organization. This makes it difficult for them to respond quickly to changes in the global market.


In addition, globalization has increased competition among firms, requiring organizations to be more innovative and flexible in their approach. Traditional bureaucratic models often stifle innovation and creativity, as they rely on strict rules and procedures to govern decision-making. This can make it difficult for organizations to adapt to changing market conditions and stay competitive.


Moreover, globalization has also brought about the need for cross-cultural communication and collaboration, which is not always supported by traditional bureaucratic structures. Bureaucratic models often rely on standardized procedures and protocols, which may not be effective in a global context where cultural differences can significantly impact communication and collaboration.


Overall, the traditional bureaucratic model has lost much of its significance in the context of globalization. Today's organizations need to be flexible, innovative, and adaptive to stay competitive in the global market. As a result, many organizations are shifting towards more agile, decentralized structures that enable them to respond quickly to changing market conditions and customer needs.


5. (e) "The financial suitability of the Urban local bodies can become a reality only when they receive their due share of public finances." Explain.

Answer: Urban local bodies (ULBs) are responsible for providing essential services such as water supply, sanitation, waste management, health, education, and other infrastructure facilities to the residents of urban areas. These services require a significant amount of funding, which is often not sufficient from their own sources of revenue. Therefore, the ULBs heavily depend on the central and state government grants to meet their expenses.


The financial viability of the ULBs is essential for their effective functioning and service delivery. However, many ULBs in India struggle with financial sustainability due to the inadequate allocation of public finances. The ULBs often receive insufficient grants from the central and state governments, which limits their ability to provide basic services and invest in critical infrastructure.


When ULBs receive their due share of public finances, it can significantly improve their financial suitability. Adequate funding would allow ULBs to invest in infrastructure, equipment, and technology that would enable them to provide efficient and effective services to the residents. Furthermore, it would also enable them to meet their operating and maintenance expenses, which are essential for the sustainability of their services.


The lack of public finances can also lead to ULBs relying on other sources of funding, such as borrowing from financial institutions or raising funds through user charges. However, this can lead to a cycle of debt and may make it difficult for the ULBs to provide services to the poorest sections of society.


In conclusion, the financial suitability of ULBs is essential for the provision of essential services to urban residents. To achieve this, ULBs need to receive their due share of public finances. Adequate funding would enable them to invest in infrastructure, equipment, and technology, meet their operating expenses, and provide efficient and effective services to the residents.



6. (a) The recommendations of National Finance Commissions are more norms based than need-based. In light of this statement analyze the terms of references of the 15th National Finance Commission.


Answer: The National Finance Commission (NFC) is a constitutional body that is responsible for distributing financial resources between the federal government and the provincial governments of Pakistan. The 15th National Finance Commission was constituted in April 2020 to review the formula for the distribution of resources among the federating units for the next five years.


Regarding the statement that the recommendations of the NFC are more norms-based than need-based, it means that the NFC formula is more focused on providing a fair share of resources to each province based on certain parameters and criteria, rather than taking into account the actual needs of each province. This can be seen as a criticism because the needs of each province may vary based on factors such as population size, economic development, and infrastructure requirements.


Now let's analyze the terms of reference (TORs) of the 15th NFC to determine whether they are more norms-based or need-based:


To review the existing formula for the distribution of resources between the federation and the provinces, and among the provinces themselves, with a view to addressing horizontal and vertical imbalances.

This TOR suggests that the NFC is tasked with reviewing the current formula to ensure a fair distribution of resources, which could be considered more need-based than norms-based.


To recommend a new formula for the distribution of resources between the federation and the provinces, and among the provinces themselves, for the next five years.

This TOR implies that the NFC will recommend a formula that will be applicable for the next five years, which could be seen as a more