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Geography Civil Services Paper 2 Section- B, Questions 7,8_ Solutions




Q7. (a) Discuss the salient characteristics of industrial complexes of Western India. Examine the impact of SEZ policy on the region.


The industrial complexes of Western India are characterized by a variety of factors that have contributed to the region's industrialization and economic growth. Some of the salient characteristics of these complexes include:


Proximity to Ports: Many of the industrial complexes in Western India are located near major ports such as Mumbai, Kandla, and Mundra. This proximity has facilitated the import and export of goods, making it easier for industries to access raw materials and markets.


Availability of Skilled Labor: Western India has a large pool of skilled and semi-skilled labor, which has contributed to the growth of the region's industries. Many workers come from neighboring states and migrate to Western India in search of work opportunities.


Diversified Industries: Western India is home to a diverse range of industries, including textiles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and automobiles. This diversity has helped to ensure the region's resilience to economic fluctuations.


Infrastructure: Western India has invested heavily in infrastructure, including roads, railways, and airports, which has helped to facilitate the movement of goods and people.


The Special Economic Zone (SEZ) policy has had a significant impact on the industrial complexes of Western India. SEZs are designated areas that offer tax breaks, infrastructure, and other incentives to attract foreign investment and promote exports. Here are some aspects to examine:


Increased Investment: The SEZ policy has led to increased investment in Western India, particularly in the manufacturing and services sectors. This has helped to create job opportunities and boost economic growth.


Improved Infrastructure: The SEZ policy has also contributed to the development of infrastructure in the region, particularly in terms of transport, power, and water supply. This has facilitated the movement of goods and people, making it easier for industries to operate.


Land Acquisition Issues: The SEZ policy has also faced criticism for its impact on local communities, particularly in terms of land acquisition. Critics argue that the policy has led to the displacement of farmers and other landowners, without adequate compensation or resettlement.


Inequality: The benefits of the SEZ policy have not been evenly distributed, with some areas benefiting more than others. This has led to increased inequality within the region, with some communities being left behind.


In conclusion, the industrial complexes of Western India are characterized by a variety of factors that have contributed to the region's economic growth. The SEZ policy has had a significant impact on the region, leading to increased investment and improved infrastructure. However, the policy has also faced criticism for its impact on local communities and its potential to exacerbate inequality.


b. Discuss the emergence of linguistic regions and states in India.


India is a country with a diverse linguistic landscape, with over 19,500 languages and dialects spoken across its states and regions. The emergence of linguistic regions and states in India can be traced back to the country's colonial history, post-independence political movements, and constitutional provisions.


During the British colonial period, the British East India Company introduced English as the official language for administrative purposes. This led to the marginalization of Indian languages and the promotion of English as the language of education and governance. As a result, regional linguistic identities began to emerge in the 19th and 20th centuries as Indians sought to reclaim their linguistic heritage.


The Indian independence movement was also a catalyst for linguistic nationalism. Leaders such as Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru recognized the importance of linguistic diversity and advocated for the preservation and promotion of regional languages. Post-independence, several linguistic movements emerged, demanding the recognition of their language as the official language of their state.


The Constitution of India, adopted in 1950, recognized the importance of linguistic diversity and included provisions for the protection and promotion of regional languages. The creation of linguistic states began in 1953 with the formation of Andhra Pradesh, which was followed by the creation of several other states, such as Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Maharashtra. These states were created on the basis of linguistic identity, with each state having its official language.


The emergence of linguistic regions and states has played a crucial role in preserving and promoting linguistic diversity in India. It has also contributed to the development of literature, culture, and education in regional languages. However, linguistic divisions have also led to political tensions and conflicts, particularly in states where there are multiple linguistic groups.


In conclusion, the emergence of linguistic regions and states in India can be traced back to colonial history, post-independence political movements, and constitutional provisions. While it has helped to preserve linguistic diversity and promote regional languages, it has also led to political tensions and conflicts.

c. What are the drivers of urban sprawl around the major cities of the country? How have new investments in transport projects supported sprawl development?


There are several drivers of urban sprawl around major cities in many countries, including:


Population Growth: The population of major cities continues to grow, which increases the demand for housing and other infrastructure.


Affordable Housing: People are often drawn to suburban areas because the cost of living is lower, and they can find more affordable housing options.



Transportation: People are often willing to live further from urban centers if transportation infrastructure, such as highways and public transit, makes it easier to commute to work and access amenities.


Land Use Policies: Some land use policies, such as zoning laws that require larger lot sizes or restrict the development of high-density housing, can contribute to urban sprawl by pushing development further away from city centers.


Investments in transportation projects can both support and exacerbate urban sprawl. Improved transportation infrastructure can make it easier for people to live further from urban centers and still access jobs, services, and amenities. For example, building highways or adding more lanes to existing ones can make it easier for people to commute to work from further away. Additionally, public transit projects, such as new subway lines or bus routes, can also increase accessibility to suburban areas.


However, transportation investments can also contribute to urban sprawl by increasing the availability of land for development further from city centers. For example, building a new highway or expanding an existing one can open up previously inaccessible areas for development, leading to suburban sprawl. Therefore, it's important for transportation investments to be accompanied by land-use policies that encourage compact development and discourage sprawl.



8 b. Discuss the geopolitical significance of Quad in the Indo-Pacific realm with reference to marine trade in the region.


The Quad, or the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, is a strategic grouping of four countries in the Indo-Pacific region, namely the United States, Japan, India, and Australia. The Quad has emerged as a significant geopolitical force in the region, with a particular focus on maritime security and trade.


One of the primary geopolitical implications of the Quad is its potential to counterbalance China's growing influence in the Indo-Pacific region. As China continues to expand its economic and military presence in the region, the Quad countries have sought to strengthen their own security and economic ties, with a focus on maintaining a rules-based order in the region.


In terms of maritime trade, the Quad has emphasized the importance of maintaining open and free trade routes in the Indo-Pacific region. This is particularly significant given the region's dependence on maritime trade, with over 80% of global trade passing through the region's sea lanes. The Quad countries have emphasized the importance of upholding the rules-based order in the region, including freedom of navigation and adherence to international maritime laws.


The Quad has also initiated several infrastructure and connectivity projects in the Indo-Pacific region, such as the Asia-Africa Growth Corridor and the Blue Dot Network, which aim to enhance regional connectivity and promote sustainable economic growth. These initiatives are expected to have a positive impact on maritime trade by improving transportation and logistics infrastructure in the region.


Overall, the Quad's focus on maritime security and trade in the Indo-Pacific realm is significant as it provides a counterbalance to China's expanding influence in the region and promotes a rules-based order that supports open and free trade routes. The Quad's initiatives in infrastructure and connectivity are also expected to have a positive impact on maritime trade in the region.



c. Evaluate the role of the National Food Security Act, 2013 in providing access of food to the poor in India.


The National Food Security Act (NFSA) 2013 was enacted with the primary objective of ensuring food security for all citizens of India, especially the poor and vulnerable sections. The act provides for the distribution of food grains at subsidized prices to the targeted population through the public distribution system (PDS).


The NFSA aims to provide legal entitlements to food to over two-thirds of the country's population. It mandates the government to provide 5 kg of food grains per person per month at subsidized prices. The act also provides for the identification of priority households and their entitlement to 35 kg of food grains per household per month at a subsidized price.


One of the most significant achievements of the NFSA has been the expansion of the coverage of the PDS. The act has brought in significant changes in the PDS by eliminating leakages, reducing corruption, and making it more transparent. The act also mandates the use of Aadhaar-based biometric authentication to ensure that the food reaches the targeted beneficiaries.


Another important feature of the NFSA is the inclusion of the Mid-Day Meal scheme, which provides hot cooked meals to school-going children. This scheme has played a significant role in increasing school enrollment and reducing malnutrition among children.


Despite these achievements, there have been some challenges in implementing the NFSA. There have been issues related to the identification of beneficiaries, delays in the delivery of food grains, and inadequate storage and distribution infrastructure. There have also been concerns about the quality of food grains distributed through the PDS.


In conclusion, the NFSA has played a crucial role in providing access to food for the poor in India. However, there is a need for continued efforts to address the challenges and make the PDS more effective and efficient. The government needs to ensure that the targeted beneficiaries are identified correctly, and food grains are delivered on time and of good quality. By addressing these challenges, the NFSA can fulfill its objective of ensuring food security for all citizens of India.



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